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Understanding the behavior of manta rays: answer to a critique

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Fig. 1

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Author information

Correspondence to Csilla Ari.

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This manuscript has not been submitted to any other journal. All co-authors participated and agreed to the content of the manuscript and are aware that it has been submitted for publication to the Journal of Ethology.

Electronic supplementary material

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Manta ray opens and closes cephalic fin that is closer to the wall on reaching the wall (WMV 76596 kb)

Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a white pole/novel object (AVI 8477 kb)

Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a board at the side of tank/novel object (WMV 12658 kb)

Manta ray using opened cephalic fins to channel plankton into its mouth (AVI 9732 kb)

Male manta ray touches the back of a female manta ray with its cephalic fin (WMV 14017 kb)

Male manta ray closely follows a female manta ray with opened cephalic fins (”forming a train”) (WMV 28799 kb)

Manta ray opens and closes cephalic fin that is closer to the wall on reaching the wall (WMV 76596 kb)

Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a white pole/novel object (AVI 8477 kb)

Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a white pole/novel object (WMV 1236 kb)

Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a vacuum hose/novel object (WMV 1963 kb)

Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a board at the side of tank/novel object (WMV 12658 kb)

Manta ray using opened cephalic fins to channel plankton into its mouth (AVI 9732 kb)

Manta ray moves cephalic fins at a cleaning station (WMV 5502 kb)

Manta ray moves cephalic fins at a cleaning station (WMV 4955 kb)

Male manta ray touches the back of a female manta ray with its cephalic fin (WMV 14017 kb)

Male manta ray closely follows a female manta ray with opened cephalic fins (”forming a train”) (WMV 28799 kb)

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Ari, C., Laros, K., Balcombe, J. et al. Understanding the behavior of manta rays: answer to a critique. J Ethol 35, 149–152 (2017) doi:10.1007/s10164-016-0497-1

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Keywords

  • Social Signal
  • Mark Test
  • Asian Elephant
  • Sensory Exchange
  • Wild Specimen