Reuse of waste catalytic-cracking catalyst: fine performance in acetalization

  • Du Zhang
  • Bin Wen
  • Yiping Chen
  • Qiong XuEmail author
  • Xiaoshun Zhu
  • Nan Sun
  • Xianxiang Liu
  • Dulin YinEmail author


Equilibrium fluid-catalytic-cracking catalyst (E-cat), a waste catalyst from fluid-catalytic cracking in petroleum refining, was used to catalyze acetalization of aldehydes (ketones) with diols. Although the activity of E-cat in catalytic cracking has decreased, it still presented fine catalytic performance in the acetalization. The ketal was stoichiometrically formed in the reaction of cyclohexanone with ethanediol, conversion of the ketone reached to 99.7% and selectivity of the ketal maintained 100% in the optimum conditions. It was revealed that E-cat can be provided with the wide adaptability in acetalization from the syntheses of different kinds of acetals or ketals. Moreover, E-cat appeared a superreusability through filtration from the reaction flask. It was an attracted example for decrement from the bulk waste catalyst in petroleum refining.


Waste solid catalyst Equilibrium FCC catalyst Acetalization Diol 



The authors are grateful for the support extended to this work by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21776068 and 21606082).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for New Petro-Chemical Materials and Fine Utilization of Resources, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringHunan Normal UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Hunan Changling Petrochemical S & T Developing Co. LtdYueyangPeople’s Republic of China

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