Reuse of waste catalytic-cracking catalyst: fine performance in acetalization
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Equilibrium fluid-catalytic-cracking catalyst (E-cat), a waste catalyst from fluid-catalytic cracking in petroleum refining, was used to catalyze acetalization of aldehydes (ketones) with diols. Although the activity of E-cat in catalytic cracking has decreased, it still presented fine catalytic performance in the acetalization. The ketal was stoichiometrically formed in the reaction of cyclohexanone with ethanediol, conversion of the ketone reached to 99.7% and selectivity of the ketal maintained 100% in the optimum conditions. It was revealed that E-cat can be provided with the wide adaptability in acetalization from the syntheses of different kinds of acetals or ketals. Moreover, E-cat appeared a superreusability through filtration from the reaction flask. It was an attracted example for decrement from the bulk waste catalyst in petroleum refining.
KeywordsWaste solid catalyst Equilibrium FCC catalyst Acetalization Diol
The authors are grateful for the support extended to this work by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21776068 and 21606082).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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