Quantification of nitrogen load in a regulated river system in Vietnam by material flow analysis

  • Thu Nga DoEmail author
  • Viet Bach Tran
  • Anh Duc Trinh
  • Kei Nishida


In this study, nitrogen (N) loads in Day-Nhue River Basin (DNRB) in Vietnam were quantified (at river basin and province scale) via field observation and application of material flow analysis (MFA). By developing L(Q) curves, measured N loads were estimated from water level data and N content of rivers. N loads from DNRB to Tonkin Gulf were quantified by MFA. The gaps between MFA results and measurements were increased from 4.48 to 21.47% corresponding to the accumulative rainfall from year 2008 to 2010. Results illustrate that MFA can estimate potential N load across the river basin to surface water. Observed ranges in upstream and downstream river loads were different at 55–84% and 5–20% respectively, corresponding well with those estimated by MFA. MFA is effective at quantifying N load to surface water the downstream regions, which are mainly used for paddy agriculture. Original N sources were traced via MFA, identifying that decreasing chemical fertilizer application rates and pretreatment of drainage water before discharging to the surface water reduce N load from the DNRB to the surface water. Additionally, MFA identified a hidden flow in the upstream portion of the DNRB, which meant that measurement data were under-estimated.


Nitrogen Material flow analysis (MFA) Day-Nhue River Basin Vietnam Regulated river 



We gratefully acknowledge Prof. Junko Shindo for her assessment of our research methodology. The presented work was conducted under the support of the “Fiscal 2017 JASSO, Follow-up Research Fellowship”. This research was funded by the Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under Grant number NE/P014577/1 and by Graduate University of Science and Technology under Grant number GUST.STS.ĐT2017-ST02. We appreciatively thank to Dr. Virginia Panizzo, University of Nottingham, UK, for editing this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thu Nga Do
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Viet Bach Tran
    • 3
  • Anh Duc Trinh
    • 4
  • Kei Nishida
    • 5
  1. 1.Graduate University of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.Electric Power UniversityHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.Thuyloi UniversityHanoiVietnam
  4. 4.Vietnam Atomic Energy InstituteHanoiVietnam
  5. 5.International Research Centre for River Basin Environment (ICRE)University of YamanashiKofuJapan

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