Fuel characteristics of sewage sludge using thermal treatment
- 30 Downloads
Pretreatment of sewage sludge under inert condition can produce enhanced solid fuel qualities. In this study, sewage sludge was torrefied in a horizontal tubular reactor at temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 °C. Improved fuel characteristics with reduced oxidized compounds which become more like coal were depicted by the CHO index and Van Krevelen diagram. The CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data obtained for 450 °C was − 0.65. Statistical Grindability Index (SGI) gradually decreased with the lowest value for 450 °C while the fuel ratio increased with increase in torrefaction temperature. The spontaneous combustion of sewage sludge was analyzed and the average spontaneous combustion temperature of 211.4 °C was obtained.
KeywordsSewage sludge Torrefaction CHO index Statistical grindability index (SGI) Spontaneous combustion
This work was supported by Renewable Energy’s Technology Development Program (No. 20163010102160) of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy of the Korean government and the research project funded by Korea Occupational Safety & Health Agency.
- 5.Deutmeyer M, Bradley D, Hektor B, Hess R, Nikolaisen L, Tumuluru J, Wild M (2012) Possible effect of torrefaction on biomass trade. IEA Bioenergy 40Google Scholar
- 12.Sukiran MA (2008) Pyrolysis of empty oil palm fruit bunches using the quartz fluidised-fixed bed reactor, Master Thesis, University of MalayaGoogle Scholar
- 17.Bergman PC, Boersma A, Zwart R, Kiel J (2005) Torrefaction for biomass co-firing in existing coal-fired power stations. Energy Centre of Netherlands, Report No.ECN-C-05-013. Energy Research Centre of Netherlands (ECN), The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
- 20.Sluiter A, Hames B, Ruiz R, Scarlata C, Sluiter J, Templeton D (2004) Determination of ash in biomass: LAP-005 NREL analytical procedure. Natl Renew Energy LabGoogle Scholar
- 21.Prins MJ (2005) Thermodynamic analysis of biomass gasification and torrefaction, PhD Thesis, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
- 24.Mann BF, Chen H, Herndon EM, Chu RK, Tolic N, Portier EF, Chowdhury TR, Robinson EW, Callister SJ, Wullschleger SD (2015) Indexing permafrost soil organic matter degradation using high-resolution mass spectrometry. PLoS One 10, e0130557Google Scholar
- 28.Bergman PCA, Boersma AR, Kiel JH, Prins MJ, Ptasinski KJ, Janssen F (2004) Torrefaction for entrained-flow gasification of biomass. Report ECN-RX-04-046. ECN, PettenGoogle Scholar
- 31.Hardgrove R (1932) Grindability of coal. Trans ASME Fuels Steam Power 54:37–46Google Scholar