Design considerations of constructed wetlands to reduce landfill leachate contamination in tropical regions
- 214 Downloads
In tropical regions, landfill leachate contamination at municipal solid waste disposal sites is a critical issue because of the large volume of highly contaminated leachate formed during the rainy season. We evaluated the efficacy of constructed wetlands (CWs) with the ability to reduce the water volume and pollutant levels to reduce leachate contamination compared to the most commonly used treatment system, stabilization ponds, based on parameters obtained in a field experiment in Thailand. The simulation indicated that CWs had a higher potential to reduce the water volume than stabilization ponds over the course of a year. Scenario evaluations under varying initial water depths, system depths, and area sizes indicated that the CWs could reduce the treatment area to prevent overflow and leachate pollution. In addition, the CWs were estimated to reduce the leachate amount and pollution by 83–100% and 92–99%, respectively. When there is limited land available, deeper CWs can be used to sustainably prevent contamination from leachate overflow. Effectively designed CW systems may be valuable for both reducing the required area and the contamination; therefore, CWs are a promising option for sustainable landfill leachate treatment systems in developing tropical regions.
KeywordsConstructed wetlands Contamination Landfill leachate Tropical region Water reduction
This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) 16K16208 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.
- 5.Wijesekara S, Mayakaduwa SS, Siriwardana AR, de Silva N, Basnayake BFA, Kawamoto K, Vithanage M (2014) Fate and transport of pollutants through a municipal solid waste landfill leachate in Sri Lanka. Environ Earth Sci 72:1707–1719Google Scholar
- 6.Johannessen LM, Boyer G (1999) Observations of solid waste landfills in developing countries: Africa, Asia, and Latin America, The World Bank, Washington, DC. http://www.worldbank.org/urban/solid_wm/erm/CWG%20folder/uwp3.pdf
- 10.Mavakala BK, Le Faucheur S, Mulaji CK, Laffite A, Devarajan N, Biey EM, Giuliani G, Otamonga JP, Kabatusuila P, Mpiana PT, Pote J (2016) Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests. Waste Manag 55:238–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Ishigaki T (2014) Appropriate countermeasure and technology transfer on waste landfill leachate as development of urban waste management in Asia (in Japanese). Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (3K113027) of Ministry of the Environment JapanGoogle Scholar
- 27.Thai Meteorological Department. http://www.aws-observation.tmd.go.th/web/main/index.asp
- 31.Reed SC, Crites RW, Middlebrooks EJ (1995) Natural systems for waste management and treatment, 2nd ed. (In Japanese, translated by Ishizaki K and Kusuda T, Gihodo, Tokyo)Google Scholar