Survey of quantity and management condition of end-of-life tires in Iran: a case study in Tabriz
- 79 Downloads
Once a tire is removed from a vehicle without the possibility of being remounted for continued on-road use, it is defined as waste and called end-of-life tire (ELT). ELTs are non-biodegradable, cannot be compressed and occupy large amount of space in landfills. Dumped tires provide breeding grounds for vectors and rodents and are susceptible to fire hazards. Numerous actions have been taken to manage ELTs worldwide; however, in Iran, there has not been much attention given to the issue. The goal of this study was to survey quantity and management conditions of ELTs and present managing principles according to the environmental and health aspects in Iran (a case study in Tabriz). The amount of ELTs in Iran was estimated by considering the production, import, export and life of tires. Next the current ELT management condition in Tabriz City was investigated using a checklist, observation, site visiting and interview. Then by considering scientific sources and also, according to experiences in other countries and current conditions, managing principles were suggested. Results showed that 198,346–339,678 tonnes of ELTs have been produced in Iran during 2003–2015 that equals 2.95–4.52 kg per capita per year. The amount of ELTs has had almost increasing trend during last 13 years. About 6390 tonnes of ELTs annually in Tabriz City are landfilled or dumped, which can create great hazards to the health and environment. Based on the results of this study, for improving the current condition of ELTs, first, the ELT production must be reduced and then ELTs must be reused or recycled. Moreover, landfilling of ELTs should be banned gradually and extended producer responsibility (EPR) system must be implemented for their management.
KeywordsEnd of life tires Quantity Management Iran Tabriz
The authors wish to thank the University of Tabriz and all the members of the research team and others who participated in this study.
- 1.Shulman VL (2004) Tyre recycling. Rapra Rev Rep 15(7):3–5Google Scholar
- 4.Tchobanoglous G, Kreith F (2002) Handbook of solid waste management. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 8.Edward LK, Mui D, Ko CK, McKay G (2004) Production of active carbons from waste tires: a review. Carbon 14:2789–2805Google Scholar
- 19.Samadian F (2006) Report of scrap tire recycling, Ministry of Industries and Mines, Islamic Republic of Iran (in Persian) Google Scholar
- 20.Recycle Organization of Mashhad Municipality. https://wmo.mashhad.ir/portalcontent. Accessed 12 July 2016
- 21.Statistical Center of Iran (2016) https://www.amar.org.ir/Default.asp. Accessed 1 June 2016
- 22.http://www.irica.gov.ir/Portal/Home/Default.aspx?Category. Accessed 20 May 2016 (Persian)
- 23.Shaeri M, Rahmati A (2012) Human’s environmental laws, regulations, criteria and standards. Department of Environment (in Persian), IranGoogle Scholar
- 26.RMA, Rubber Manufacturers Association (USA) (2016) 2015 USA scape tire managementsummary. https://rma.org/sites/default/files/RMA_scraptire_summ_2015.pdf. Accessed 9 Apr 2016
- 28.JATMA, Japan Automobile Tire Manufacturers Association (2015) Tire Industry of Japan. http://www.jatma.or.jp/english. Accessed 25 July 2016