Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 1099–1105 | Cite as

Survey of quantity and management condition of end-of-life tires in Iran: a case study in Tabriz

  • Mahsa Zarei
  • Hassan TaghipourEmail author
  • Yousef Hassanzadeh


Once a tire is removed from a vehicle without the possibility of being remounted for continued on-road use, it is defined as waste and called end-of-life tire (ELT). ELTs are non-biodegradable, cannot be compressed and occupy large amount of space in landfills. Dumped tires provide breeding grounds for vectors and rodents and are susceptible to fire hazards. Numerous actions have been taken to manage ELTs worldwide; however, in Iran, there has not been much attention given to the issue. The goal of this study was to survey quantity and management conditions of ELTs and present managing principles according to the environmental and health aspects in Iran (a case study in Tabriz). The amount of ELTs in Iran was estimated by considering the production, import, export and life of tires. Next the current ELT management condition in Tabriz City was investigated using a checklist, observation, site visiting and interview. Then by considering scientific sources and also, according to experiences in other countries and current conditions, managing principles were suggested. Results showed that 198,346–339,678 tonnes of ELTs have been produced in Iran during 2003–2015 that equals 2.95–4.52 kg per capita per year. The amount of ELTs has had almost increasing trend during last 13 years. About 6390 tonnes of ELTs annually in Tabriz City are landfilled or dumped, which can create great hazards to the health and environment. Based on the results of this study, for improving the current condition of ELTs, first, the ELT production must be reduced and then ELTs must be reused or recycled. Moreover, landfilling of ELTs should be banned gradually and extended producer responsibility (EPR) system must be implemented for their management.


End of life tires Quantity Management Iran Tabriz 



The authors wish to thank the University of Tabriz and all the members of the research team and others who participated in this study.


  1. 1.
    Shulman VL (2004) Tyre recycling. Rapra Rev Rep 15(7):3–5Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Torretta V, CristinaRada E, Ragazzi M, Trulli E, Istrate I (2015) Treatment and disposal of tires: two EU approaches: a review. Waste Manag 45:152–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sienkiewcz M, Kucinska-Lipka J, Janik H, Balas A (2012) Progress in used tires management in the European Union: a review. Waste Manag 32:1742–1751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tchobanoglous G, Kreith F (2002) Handbook of solid waste management. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jang J, Yoo T, Oh J-H, Iwasaki I (1998) Discarded tire recycling practices in the United States, Japan and Korea. Resour Conserv Recycl 22:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang NB (2008) Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan. J Environ Manag 86:435–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fiksel J, Bhavic RB, Anil B, Erika G, Bernhard D (2011) Comparative life cycle assessment of beneficial applications for scrap tires. Clean Technol Environ Policy 13:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Edward LK, Mui D, Ko CK, McKay G (2004) Production of active carbons from waste tires: a review. Carbon 14:2789–2805Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lin C, Huangb C, Shern C (2008) Recycling waste tire powder for the recovery of oil spills. Resour Conserv Recycl 52:1162–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amari T, Themelis NJ, Wernick IK (1999) Resource recovery from used rubber tires. Resour Policy 25:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li X, Xu H, Gao Y, Tao Y (2010) Comparison of end-of-life tire treatment technologies: a Chinese case study. Waste Manag 30:2235–2246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Adhikari B, De D, Maiti S (2000) Reclamation and recycling of waste rubber. Prog Polym Sci 25:909–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Williams P (2013) Pyrolysis of waste tyres: a review. Waste Manag 33:1714–1728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Siddique R, Naik TR (2004) Properties of concrete containing scrap tire rubber: an overview. Waste Manag 24:563–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yoon S, Prezzi M, Siddiki N, Kim B (2006) Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material. Waste Manag 26:1033–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aiello MA, Leuzzi F, Centonze G, Maffezzoli A (2009) Use of steel fibers recovered from waste tire as reinforcement pull-out behavior, compressive and flexural strength. Waste Manag 29:1960–1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ganjian E, Khorami M, Maghsoudi A (2009) Scrap tire rubber replacement for aggregate and filler in concrete. Constr Build Mater 23:1828–1836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zanetti MC, Fiore S, Ruffino B, Santagata E, Dalmazzo D, Lanotte M (2015) Characterization of crumb rubber from end-of-life tires for paving applications. Waste Manag 45:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Samadian F (2006) Report of scrap tire recycling, Ministry of Industries and Mines, Islamic Republic of Iran (in Persian) Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Recycle Organization of Mashhad Municipality. Accessed 12 July 2016
  21. 21.
    Statistical Center of Iran (2016) Accessed 1 June 2016
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Shaeri M, Rahmati A (2012) Human’s environmental laws, regulations, criteria and standards. Department of Environment (in Persian), IranGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Taghipour H, Nowrouz P, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Nazari J, Asl Hashemi A, Mosaferi M, Dehghanzadeh R (2012) E-waste management challenges in Iran: presenting some strategies for improvement of current conditions. Waste Manag Res 30(11):1138–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferrao P, Rebeiro P, Silva P (2007) A management system for end-of-life tyres: a Portuguese case study. Waste Manag 28:604–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    RMA, Rubber Manufacturers Association (USA) (2016) 2015 USA scape tire managementsummary. Accessed 9 Apr 2016
  27. 27.
    Uruburu A, Ponce-cueto E, Cobo-Benita JR, Ordieres-Mere J (2013) The new challenges of end-of-life tyres management systems: a Spanish case study. Waste Manag 33:679–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    JATMA, Japan Automobile Tire Manufacturers Association (2015) Tire Industry of Japan. Accessed 25 July 2016

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahsa Zarei
    • 1
  • Hassan Taghipour
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yousef Hassanzadeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health EngineeringTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations