Assessment of the molluscicidal impact of extracted chlorophyllin on some biochemical parameters in the nervous tissue and histological changes in Biomphalaria alexandrina and Lymnaea natalensis snails
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Biomphalaria alexandrina and Lymnaea natalensis snails are the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fasciolosis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extract as a photodynamic substance against these snails and how it affected its tissues and the biological system. Chlorophyllin was extracted from deep-frozen Moringa oleifera leaves, and then it was transformed into water-soluble chlorophyllin. The present results showed that it had a molluscicidal activity on B. alexandrina snails (LC50 17.6 mg/l; LC90 20.9 mg/l) and L. natalensis snails (LC50 4.3 mg/l; LC90 6.8 mg/l). Exposing B. alexandrina snails to the sublethal concentrations (LC0, LC10, and LC25) resulted in a significant reduction in their survival rates. Regarding its effect on biochemical parameters, chlorophyllin significantly reduced the acetylcholinesterase activity, protein content, and alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in B. alexandrina nervous tissue compared to the control group. Histopathological changes occurred in the digestive gland of treated B. alexandrina snails where cells lost their nuclei, vacuolated, degenerated, and ruptured, and the lumen increased. Photosynthesizing materials like chlorophyllin are new approaches to control schistosomiasis and fasciolosis in developing countries by affecting their intermediate host. These materials were cheap and environmentally safe to replace the synthetic molluscicides for snail control.
KeywordsBiomphalaria alexandrina Lymnaea natalensis Chlorophyllin Survival rate Enzymes Histopathological changes
AMI and FAB conceived and designed the study. AMI performed the experiments and analyzed the data. AMI wrote the first draft, and FAB revised and edited it. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors would like to thank the financial support of the internal project “103 M,” Theodor Bilharz Research institute, Giza, Egypt.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Ethical approval had been granted approval by the Ethics Committee of Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI).
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