Sleep debt and prevalence of proteinuria in subjects with short sleep duration on weekdays: a cross-sectional study
- 40 Downloads
Short sleep duration is a risk factor of chronic kidney disease, along with cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Several studies reported that many people sleep longer on weekends than on weekdays, suggesting that they should be compensated for their sleep debt on weekdays on the weekends. Few studies have reported the clinical impact of sleep debt on the kidney.
This cross-sectional study included 5799 employees of Osaka University who visited its Health Care Center for their annual health examinations and answered ≤ 6 h of sleep duration on weekdays. The independent variable was the sleep debt index defined as a gap in self-reported sleep duration (≤ 5, 5–6, 6–7, 7–8, 8–9, and ≥ 9 h) between weekdays and weekends, which was categorized into ≤ 0, + 1, + 2, + 3 and ≥+4. An association between the sleep debt index and a prevalence of proteinuria defined as dipstick proteinuria of ≥ 1 + was assessed using logistic regression models adjusting for clinically relevant factors.
More than four-fifths of the subjects had a positive sleep debt index (≤ 0, + 1, + 2, + 3, and ≥+4 recorded for 19%, 36%, 28%, 11%, and 6%, respectively). The multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models showed the sleep debt index ≥ 3 + was significantly associated with the prevalence of proteinuria (sleep debt index ≤ 0, adjusted odds ratio 1.13 [0.77, 1.65]; + 1, 1.00 [reference]; + 2, 1.29 [0.93, 1.79]; + 3, 1.54 [1.02, 2.33]; ≥ + 4, 1.87 [1.15, 3.05]).
Sleep debt was associated with the prevalence of proteinuria in a dose-dependent manner.
KeywordsSleep deprivation Sleep debt Sleep duration Proteinuria Health checkup
We thank all the staff members of Health and Counseling Center, Osaka University for their contributions to the database of the present cohort.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors have declared no competing interest.
The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Osaka University Health and Counseling Center (No. 2016-1) and Osaka University Hospital (No. 17009-2).
Informed consent was not obtained from participants, according to Japanese Ethical Guidelines for Medical and Health Research Involving Human Subjects.
- 19.Kon S, Konta T, Ichikawa K, Asahi K, Yamagata K, Fujimoto S, et al. Association between renal function and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the community-based elderly population: results from the Specific Health Check and Guidance Program in Japan. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2018;22:346–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Matsushita K, van der Velde M, Astor BC, Woodward M, Levey AS, Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium, et al. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010;375:2073–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Sarnak MJ, Levey AS, Schoolwerth AC, Coresh J, Culleton B, Hamm LL, et al. Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation. 2003;108:2154–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Cheungpasitporn W, Thongprayoon C, Gonzalez-Suarez ML, Srivali N, Ungprasert P, Kittanamongkolchai W, et al. The effects of short sleep duration on proteinuria and chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nephrol Dial Transpl. 2017;32:991–6.Google Scholar
- 41.Martens RJH, Kooman JP, Stehouwer CDA, Dagnelie PC, Van Der Kallen CJH, Kroon AA, et al. Albuminuria is associated with a higher prevalence of depression in a population-based cohort study: the Maastricht Study. Nephrol Dial Transpl. 2018;33:128–38.Google Scholar