Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among HIV-1-infected patients receiving a combination antiretroviral therapy
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become one of the most frequent non-infectious comorbidities in the aging HIV-infected population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study including HIV-infected adult patients attending our HIV outpatient clinic during the years 2017 and 2018 to assess prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured by Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. CKD was diagnosed and classified according to the National Kidney Foundation guidelines. Logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with CKD.
We enrolled 2339 HIV-infected patients (91% were Caucasian) with a mean age of 45.3 years and a mean current CD4 lymphocyte count of 531 cells/mm3. CKD was diagnosed in 311 subjects (13.3%). Overall, 294 (12.6%) patients had albuminuria, 108 (4.6%) had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 78 (3.3%) had albuminuria plus eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Stages 4–5 of CKD were documented in 23 (1%) cases. Age greater than 50 years, male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high triglycerides, nadir CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mm3, current use of tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (TDF) and of TDF plus a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors were independently associated with CKD, while current use of abacavir plus one integrase inhibitor was associated with a reduced risk of CKD.
There is a significant prevalence of CKD among HIV-infected persons in association with both traditional and HIV-specific risk factors, requiring a careful periodic monitoring of renal function in these patients.
KeywordsRenal dysfunction Glomerular filtration rate Proteinuria Albuminuria Antiretroviral drugs
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
Human and animal rights
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional review board at the S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital approval (approval number: 198/2017/O/Oss).
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