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Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, Volume 23, Issue 11, pp 1272–1279 | Cite as

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among HIV-1-infected patients receiving a combination antiretroviral therapy

  • Leonardo CalzaEmail author
  • Michele Sachs
  • Vincenzo Colangeli
  • Marco Borderi
  • Bianca Granozzi
  • Pietro Malosso
  • Giorgia Comai
  • Valeria Corradetti
  • Gaetano La Manna
  • Pierluigi Viale
Original article

Abstract

Background

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become one of the most frequent non-infectious comorbidities in the aging HIV-infected population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

Methods

We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study including HIV-infected adult patients attending our HIV outpatient clinic during the years 2017 and 2018 to assess prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured by Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. CKD was diagnosed and classified according to the National Kidney Foundation guidelines. Logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with CKD.

Results

We enrolled 2339 HIV-infected patients (91% were Caucasian) with a mean age of 45.3 years and a mean current CD4 lymphocyte count of 531 cells/mm3. CKD was diagnosed in 311 subjects (13.3%). Overall, 294 (12.6%) patients had albuminuria, 108 (4.6%) had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 78 (3.3%) had albuminuria plus eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Stages 4–5 of CKD were documented in 23 (1%) cases. Age greater than 50 years, male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high triglycerides, nadir CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mm3, current use of tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (TDF) and of TDF plus a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors were independently associated with CKD, while current use of abacavir plus one integrase inhibitor was associated with a reduced risk of CKD.

Conclusion

There is a significant prevalence of CKD among HIV-infected persons in association with both traditional and HIV-specific risk factors, requiring a careful periodic monitoring of renal function in these patients.

Keywords

Renal dysfunction Glomerular filtration rate Proteinuria Albuminuria Antiretroviral drugs 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Human and animal rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional review board at the S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital approval (approval number: 198/2017/O/Oss).

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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Nephrology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonardo Calza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michele Sachs
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Colangeli
    • 1
  • Marco Borderi
    • 1
  • Bianca Granozzi
    • 1
  • Pietro Malosso
    • 1
  • Giorgia Comai
    • 2
  • Valeria Corradetti
    • 2
  • Gaetano La Manna
    • 2
  • Pierluigi Viale
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesS. Orsola Hospital, “Alma Mater Studiorum” University of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Unit of Nephrology, Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesS.Orsola Hospital, University of BolognaBolognaItaly

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