Techniques in Coloproctology

, Volume 23, Issue 8, pp 775–778 | Cite as

Use of three-dimensional virtual images for planning surgery of complex anal fistulas: a new technology available via smartphone

  • E. C. Sousa Júnior
  • W. M. N. Eulálio FilhoEmail author
  • A. T. Nogueira
  • B. A. Rocha
  • A. D. Meneses
Technical Advances


Treatment of complex anal fistulas is considered a challenge for most surgeons. Although many surgical techniques are available, it is very important to identify fistula tracts before and during the surgical procedure [1]. Therefore, technologies should be developed to improve preoperative planning. As a result, the best surgical approach will be chosen, and proper healing of the perianal region will be optimized.

In the past few years, several specialties have benefitted from three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific anatomical models to diagnose diseases and plan complex operations. However, there are only few reports describing the use of new technologies for planning rectal and anal surgery [2, 3, 4, 5]. The aim of this study was to describe the process of creating a 3D image from patient anatomy. It also addresses preoperative surgical planning for the correction of complex anal fistulas using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) through access by smartphone or tablet.



Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

The patient involved in this case was appropriately consented for this publication using the institution's policy for media consent.


  1. 1.
    Schlichtemeier S, Tou S (2018) Treatment for complex anal fistula, are we any wiser? Colorectal Dis 20(12):1067–1068. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lam D, Yong E, D'Souza B, Woods R (2018) Three-dimensional modeling for Crohn's fistula-in-ano: a novel interactive approach. Dis Colon Rectum 61(5):567–572. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Day NJ, Earnshaw D, Salazar-Ferrer P, Walsh CJ (2013) Preoperative mapping of fistula-in-ano: a new three dimensional MRI-based modelling technique. Colorectal Dis 15:e699–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sahnan K, Adegbola SO, Tozer PJ, Patel U, Ilangovan R, Warusavitarne J (2018) Innovation in the imaging perianal fistula: a step towards personalised medicine. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 24(11). Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Emile SH, Wexner SD (2019) Systematic review of the applications of three-dimensional printing in colorectal surgery. Colorectal Dis 21(3):261–269. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. C. Sousa Júnior
    • 1
  • W. M. N. Eulálio Filho
    • 2
    Email author
  • A. T. Nogueira
    • 3
  • B. A. Rocha
    • 4
  • A. D. Meneses
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of General Practice, Discipline of Surgical ClinicFederal University of PiauiTeresinaBrazil
  2. 2.Federal University of PiauiTeresinaBrazil
  3. 3.InfiniBrainsSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Radiology Department - Hospital das clinicasUSP Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Urology DepartmentSão Marcos HospitalTeresinaBrazil

Personalised recommendations