Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced sarcoidosis-like granulomas
Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 and programmed cell death-1 receptors have transformed the treatment of melanoma and other cancers. These therapies are associated with a number of side effects, including immune-related adverse events. Sarcoidosis-like granulomas (SLGs) are important immune checkpoint inhibitor-related reactions to recognize as SLGs can mimic disease progression and accordingly impact treatment decisions. We systematically review reports of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced SLGs in cancer patients and discuss potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.
KeywordsDrug reactions Melanoma Immune checkpoint inhibitor PD-1 CTLA-4 Sarcoidosis-like granuloma
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4
Immune-related adverse events
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
This study was funded by the Char and Chuck Fowler Foundation, RES119774.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Author PHR declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author BR declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author JFS declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author ANF declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author JAK declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author KH declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author HK owns stock in Company BMS. Author MRG has received research grants from the Char and Chuck Fowler Family Foundation.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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