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Elevated serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels increase malignancy-related risk in patients on chronic hemodialysis

  • Chen XiaoHong
  • Shen Bo
  • Xiang FangFang
  • Guo Man
  • Zou JianZhou
  • Liu ZhongHua
  • Lv WenLv
  • Cao XueSen
  • Ding XiaoQiangEmail author
  • Zhang Boheng
Original Article
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) have an increased incidence of malignancy due to decreased immunity. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), as an immunomodulator, seemed to have an effect in the process of malignancy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of increased sIL-2R in the course of malignancy among HD patients.

Methods

Patients who undergoing chronic hemodialysis were followed for 24 months. Risk factors for malignancy events and malignancy-related mortality during the 2-year follow-up period were investigated among various clinicopathological variables.

Results

Of the 363 patients included in this research, 47 patients (12.95%) had a prior history of treated malignancy. During the 2-year follow-up period, malignancy events were detected in 15 (4.12%) patients. Sixty-seven patients died during the study period, of which nine patients (13.43%) were died of malignancy. Malignancy events reduced 2-year mortality significantly (log-rank = 23.02, P < 0.0001). Both high sIL-2R levels ( ≥ 2-fold upper limit of the normal value) (OR 6.6, P = 0.006) and a prior history of treated malignancy (OR 4.12, P = 0.018)were identified by multivariate logistic analysis as independent determinants for malignancy events. However, only the levels of sIL-2R (used as a continuous variable) had the significantly predictive effect on malignancy events and malignancy-related mortality in the following 2 years.

Conclusions

Elevated sIL-2R levels was commonly seen in serum of HD patients. And this elevated level increased the risk of malignancy. Aside from its role as a biomarker, sIL-2R may also exert biological effects in the course of malignancy.

Keywords

Soluble interleukin-2 receptor Hemodialysis Malignancy event Malignancy-related mortality 

Abbreviations

IL-2

Interleukin-2

IL-2R

Interleukin-2 receptor

sIL-2R

Soluble interleukin-2 receptor

HD

Hemodialysis

ESRD

End-stage renal disease

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

BMI

Body-mass index

ESA

Erythropoietin-stimulating agent

spKt/V

Single-pooled Kt/V

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis Factor α

RDW

Red blood cell distribution width

hsCRP

High-sensitivity C-reactive protein

AKP

Alkaline phosphatase

GGT

γ-Glutamyl transferase

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

SCr

Serum creatinine

UA

Uric acid

β2-MG

Beta-2-microglobulin

iPTH

Intact parathyroid hormone

HbA1c

Glycosylated hemoglobin

SD

Standard deviation

IQR

Interquartile range

ROC

Receiver operating characteristic

OR

Odds ratio

CI

Confidence interval

Notes

Funding

This study was founded by Shanghai Clinical Medical Center for Kidney Disease Project support by Shanghai Municipal Health Commission (no. 2017ZZ01015) and Shanghai Municipal Hospital Frontier Technology Project supported by Shanghai ShenKang Hospital Development Center (no. SHDC12018127).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We declare no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consents were obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Japan Society of Clinical Oncology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chen XiaoHong
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Shen Bo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Xiang FangFang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Guo Man
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Zou JianZhou
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Liu ZhongHua
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Lv WenLv
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Cao XueSen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Ding XiaoQiang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 8
    Email author
  • Zhang Boheng
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Shanghai Institute of Kidney and DialysisShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Kidney and Blood PurificationShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Hemodialysis Quality Control Center of ShanghaiShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Nephrology, Zhongshan HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Shanghai Medical Center of KidneyShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  7. 7.Center for Evidence Based MedicineFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  8. 8.Blood Purification CenterZhongshan Hospital of Fudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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