International Journal of Clinical Oncology

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 94–102 | Cite as

Recognition and attitudes of Japanese hematologists on sperm banking before chemotherapy: present status from nationwide questionnaire survey

  • Yasushi YumuraEmail author
  • Akira Tsujimura
  • Hiroshi Okada
  • Kuniaki Ota
  • Masahumi Kitazawa
  • Tatsuya Suzuki
  • Toshiyuki Kakinuma
  • Chie Watanabe
  • Seido Takae
  • Nao Suzuki
  • Teruaki Iwamoto
Original Article



Treatment advancements have improved young cancer patients’ survival rate considerably. Fertility preservation has become a very important tool in the prevention of treatment-induced gonadal toxicity. This study aimed to examine hematologists’ awareness of its necessity and importance.


Questionnaires were mailed to the directors of 230 institutes that treated hematological malignancies in adults. The directors were asked to provide information regarding their institutes, collaboration with sperm banks, the number of patients treated per year, selection criteria for patients providing information, and their awareness of and attitudes toward sperm preservation.


The response rate was 40.0%. Municipal and private hospitals treated patients significantly less frequently relative to university hospitals (p = .002). Of the 92 participating hematology institutions, 17 included sperm banks and 69 collaborated with sperm banks in neighboring institutions. Many participants stated that sperm preservation should be performed before chemotherapy; however, only 38% provided sperm preservation information to all patients. Participants in facilities without sperm banks exhibited significantly lower levels of knowledge regarding sperm preservation, relative to those from institutions with sperm banks, and found discussing fertility preservation burdensome. This trend was identical to that observed in a survey conducted 10 years earlier.


Many hematologists did not appear to possess sufficient knowledge regarding fertility preservation. Moreover, few institutions included sperm banks, and a considerable burden was exerted on hematologists. The introduction of support systems is required to promote sperm preservation before cancer treatment.


Sperm preservation Chemotherapy Hematologist Attitude Recognition Questionnaire 



This national survey was conducted with the assistance of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan. We thank Editage ( for English language editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have no competing financial interests to declare.


  1. 1.
    Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A (2013) Cancer statistics, 2013. CA cancer J Clin 63:11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Relander T, Cavallin-Stahl E, Garwicz S et al (2000) Gonadal and sexual function in men treated for childhood cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol 35:52–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clark ST, Radford JA, Crowther D et al (1995) Gonadal function following chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease: a comparative study of MVPP and seven-drug regimen. J Clin Oncol 13:134–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee SI, Schver LR, Partridge AH et al (2006) American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendation on fertility preservation in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 24:2917–2931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loren AW, Mangu PB, Beck LN et al (2013) Fertility preservation for patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update. J Clin Oncol 31:2500–2510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    The Japanese Society of Clinical Oncology (2017) Clinical practice guideline for fertility preservation in childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer patients (in Japanese): The Japanese Society of Clinical OncologyGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yumura Y, Tsujimura A, Okada H et al (2018) Current status of sperm banking for young cancer patients in Japanese nationwide survey. Asian J Androl. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Muller I, Oude Ophuis RJA, Broekmans FJM et al (2016) Semen cryopreservation and usage rate for assisted reproductive technology in 898 men with cancer. Reprod Biomed Online 32:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johnson MD, Cooper AR, Jungheim ES et al (2013) Sperm banking for fertility preservation: a 20-year experience. Eur J Obst Gynecol Reprod Biol 170:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Daudin M, Rives N, Walschaerts M et al (2015) Sperm cryopreservation in adolescence and young adults with cancer: results of the French national sperm banking network (CECOS). Fertil Steril 103:478–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Depalo R, Falagario D, Masciandaro P et al (2016) Fertility preservation in males with cancer: 16-year monocentric experience of sperm banking and post-thaw reproductive outcomes. Ther Adv Med Oncol 8:412–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Japan. Annual Report of Nationwide Survey 2013. The Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation/The Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Accessed 12 Oct 2016
  13. 13.
    Tantiana CS, Bonetti FF, Pasqualotto PQ et al (2009) Sperm banking for male cancer patients: social and semen profiles. Int Braz J Urol 35:190–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Agarwal A, Ranganathan P, Kattal N et al (2004) Fertility after cancer: a prospective review of assisted reproductive outcome with banked semen specimens. Fertil Steril 81:342–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schover LR, Brey K, Lichtin A et al (2002) Oncologist’s attitudes and practice regarding banking sperm before cancer treatment. J Clin Oncol 20:1890–1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Watanabe C, Takahashi M, Kai I (2007) Hematologist practices and attitude toward chemotherapy-related infertility (in Japanese). Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. [Jpn J Cancer Chemother] 34:891–896Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kobayashi T, Shin T, Shimomura Y et al (2016) A questionnaire survey on attitude toward sperm cryopreservation among hematologists in Japan. Int J Hematol 105:349–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Achille MA, Rosberger Z, Robitaille R et al (2006) Facilitators and obstacles to sperm banking in young men receiving gonadotoxic chemotherapy for cancer: the perspective of survivors and health care professionals. Hum Reprod 21:3206–3216CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Society of Clinical Oncology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasushi Yumura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Akira Tsujimura
    • 2
  • Hiroshi Okada
    • 3
  • Kuniaki Ota
    • 4
  • Masahumi Kitazawa
    • 5
  • Tatsuya Suzuki
    • 6
  • Toshiyuki Kakinuma
    • 7
  • Chie Watanabe
    • 8
  • Seido Takae
    • 9
  • Nao Suzuki
    • 9
  • Teruaki Iwamoto
    • 10
  1. 1.Reproduction Center, Medical CenterYokohama City UniversityYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of UrologyJuntendo University Urayasu HospitalChibaJapan
  3. 3.Department of UrologyDokkyo Medical University Koshigaya HospitalSaitamaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyNasu Red Cross HospitalTochigiJapan
  5. 5.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyDokkyo Medical UniversityTochigiJapan
  6. 6.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyJichi Medical UniversityTochigiJapan
  7. 7.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyInternational University of Health and WelfareTochigiJapan
  8. 8.Department of Nursing, Faculty of Human ScienceSophia University, TokyoJapan
  9. 9.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of MedicineSt. Marianna UniversityKawasakiJapan
  10. 10.Division of Male Infertility, Center for Human Reproduction, Sanno HospitalInternational University of Health and WelfareTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations