The role of haptoglobin and hemopexin in the prevention of delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a review of current literature

  • Sean GriffithsEmail author
  • Jeremy Clark
  • Alexios A Adamides
  • James Ziogas


Delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The pathophysiology of DCI after aSAH is thought to involve toxic mediators released from lysis of red blood cells within the subarachnoid space, including free haemoglobin and haem. Haptoglobin and hemopexin are endogenously produced acute phase proteins that are involved in the clearance of these toxic mediators. The aim of this review is to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in DCI and the role of both endogenous as well as exogenously administered haptoglobin and hemopexin in the prevention of DCI.


Haptoglobin Hemopexin Haem Haemoglobin Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage Delayed cerebral ischaemia 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryRoyal Melbourne HospitalParkvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Western HospitalFootscrayAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology and TherapeuticsUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

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