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Modern radiosurgical and endovascular classification schemes for brain arteriovenous malformations


Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and endovascular techniques are commonly used for treating brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). They are usually used as ancillary techniques to microsurgery but may also be used as solitary treatment options. Careful patient selection requires a clear estimate of the treatment efficacy and complication rates for the individual patient. As such, classification schemes are an essential part of patient selection paradigm for each treatment modality. While the Spetzler-Martin grading system and its subsequent modifications are commonly used for microsurgical outcome prediction for bAVMs, the same system(s) may not be easily applicable to SRS and endovascular therapy. Several radiosurgical- and endovascular-based grading scales have been proposed for bAVMs. However, a comprehensive review of these systems including a discussion on their relative advantages and disadvantages is missing. This paper is dedicated to modern classification schemes designed for SRS and endovascular techniques.

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Correspondence to Michael T. Lawton.

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Tayebi Meybodi, A., Lawton, M.T. Modern radiosurgical and endovascular classification schemes for brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurg Rev 43, 49–58 (2020).

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  • Radiosurgery
  • Embolization
  • Grading system
  • Outcome prediction
  • Pollock-Flickinger