Functional & Integrative Genomics

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 29–41 | Cite as

Structural and functional evolution of an auxin efflux carrier PIN1 and its functional characterization in common wheat

  • Kanwardeep Singh
  • Johar Singh
  • Suruchi Jindal
  • Gaganjot Sidhu
  • Amandeep Dhaliwal
  • Kulvinder GillEmail author
Original Article


Particularly PIN1, PIN protein-mediated rate-limiting auxin distribution plays a critical role in plant differentiation. Although well-characterized in Arabidopsis, little is known about the structural and functional relationship of the PIN1 gene among other plants. Here, we report that the gene structure remained conserved among bryophytes and angiosperms while the gene size varied by ~ 17%. Although the positions were conserved, highly variable intron phase suggests preference for specific regions in the gene sequence for independent events of intron insertion. Significant variation was observed across gene length for insertions and deletions that were mainly localized to the exonic regions flanking intron 1, possibly demarcating the sequences prone to deletions/duplications. The N and C-terminals showed a higher protein sequence similarity (~ 80%) compared to the central hydrophilic loop (~ 26%). In addition to the signature domains and motifs, we identified four novel uncharacterized motifs in the central divergent loop of PIN1 protein. Three different homo-loci, one each on chromosome groups 4, 6, and 7, were identified in wheat each showing dramatically different expression patterns during different plant developmental stages. Virus-induced gene silencing of the TaPIN1 gene resulted up to 26% reduction in plant height. Because of its direct role in controlling plant height along with a higher expression during stem elongation, the TaPIN1 gene can be manipulated to regulate plant height.


Virus-induced gene silencing Comparative genomics Auxin transport Gene evolution 



This work was partly supported by the US Agency for International Development Feed the Future Innovation Lab-Climate Resilient Wheat (Grant number AID-OAA-A-13-00008) and National Science Foundation—Basic Research to Enable Agricultural Development (NSF-BREAD; grant 0965533).

Author’s contributions

Contributions to the design- Kanwardeep Singh, Gaganjot Sidhu, Johar Singh, Kulvinder Gill. Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work-Kanwardeep Singh, Suruchi Jindal, Gaganjot Sidhu, Amandeep Dhaliwal, Johar Singh, Kulvinder Gill. Drafting the manuscript or critically revising it- Kanwardeep Singh, Gaganjot Sidhu, Suruchi Jindal, Amandeep Dhaliwal, Johar Singh, Kulvinder Gill.

Supplementary material

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Table S1

(PNG 6 kb)

10142_2018_625_MOESM1_ESM.tif (718 kb)
High resolution image (TIF 718 kb)


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding and GeneticsPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Crop and Soil SciencesWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  3. 3.School of Agricultural BiotechnologyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  4. 4.Gene Shifters, LLCPullmanUSA

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