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Mitogenomic Perspectives on the Adaptation to Extreme Alkaline Environment of Amur ide (Leuciscus waleckii)


Amur ide (Leuciscus waleckii, Family Cyprinidae) is widely distributed in Northeast Asia. L. waleckii usually inhabits freshwater environments but can also survive in the Lake Dali Nur, one of the most extreme aquatic environments on the earth, with an alkalinity up to 50 mmol/L (pH 9.6). To investigate mechanisms of mitogenomic evolution underlying adaptation to extreme environments, we determined 30 complete mitogenomes that included Lake Dali Nur (alkaline environment, AL) population and Amur basin (freshwater environment, FW) population. Through phylogenetic and divergence time analysis, we found that AL and FW populations forming distinct two groups which were consistent with geographic divergence (the formation of Lake Dali Nur). In addition, we found that almost of the windows exhibited higher nucleotide diversity in FW population (avg 0.0046) than AL population (avg 0.0012). This result indicated that severe environment selection had remarkably reduced the genetic diversity of mitogenome in AL population and suggested that severe environment selection had remarkably reduced the genetic diversity of mitogenome in the AL population. Compared with the FW population (ω = 0.064), the AL population (ω = 0.092) had a larger mean ω (dN/dS ratios) value for the 13 concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding genes, indicating that the high alkaline tolerated group had accumulated more nonsynonymous mutations. These nonsynonymous mutations had resulted in slightly beneficial amino acid changes that allowed adaption to the severe conditions. This study provides an additional view to decipher the adaptive mitogenome evolution of L. waleckii of the high alkaline environment.

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This study received grant support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31801032), the Science and Technology Key Project of Henan Colleges and Universities (17B240001), Science and technology research of Henan province (182102210081), and by the Ph.D. Foundation of Henan Normal University (qd16159).

Author information

PX and XL conceived the study. CD, MY, and XD wrote the manuscript. CD, JZ, and BC performed the bioinformatics analysis to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome sequences. XD, XM, and MZ collected samples. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Correspondence to Xuejun Li or Peng Xu.

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Electronic Supplementary Material

Supplementary Fig. 1

Neighbor-joining-based phylogenetic tree of CMG sequences in 30 individuals. Bootstrap support value for each branch is included in the tree (PNG 65 kb)

Supplementary Fig. 2

Bayesian inference-based phylogenetic tree of CMG sequences in 30 individuals. Bayesian posterior probability value for each branch is included in the tree (PNG 425 kb)

High Resolution Image (TIF 668 kb)

High Resolution Image (TIF 676 kb)


The nucleotide variation values of the mitogenome sequences alignments between AL and FW populations using the sliding window approach. (XLS 98 kb)

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Dong, C., Duan, X., Younis, L.M. et al. Mitogenomic Perspectives on the Adaptation to Extreme Alkaline Environment of Amur ide (Leuciscus waleckii). Mar Biotechnol (2020).

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  • Leuciscus waleckii
  • Mitogenome
  • Adaptation
  • Alkaline environment