Lipidomic insights to understand membrane dynamics in response to vanillin in Mycobacterium smegmatis

  • Sharda Sharma
  • Saif HameedEmail author
  • Zeeshan FatimaEmail author
Original Article


Considering the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in prevalent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), there is parallel spurt in development of novel strategies aimed to disrupt MDR. The cell envelope of MTB comprises a wealth of lipid moieties contributing towards long-term survival of pathogen that could be exploited as efficient antitubercular target owing to advancements made in mass spectrometry–based lipidomics technology. This study aimed to utilize the lipidomics approach to unveil several lipid associated changes in response to natural antimycobacterial compound vanillin (Van) in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a surrogate for MTB. Lipidomic analyses revealed that that Van alters the composition of fatty acid (FA), glycerolipid (GL), glycerophospholipid (GP), and saccharolipids (SL). Furthermore, Van leads to potentiation of ampicillin and displayed additive effect. The differential expressions of various lipid biosynthetic pathway genes by RT-PCR corroborated with the lipidomics data. Lastly, we demonstrated enhanced survival of Mycobacterium-infected Caenorhabditis elegans model in presence of Van. Thus, lipidomics approach provided detailed insight into mechanisms of membrane disruption by Van in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Our work offers the basis of further understanding the regulation of lipid homeostasis in MTB so that better therapeutic targets could be identified to combat MDR.


Mycobacterium Vanillin Lipids Cell wall Fatty acid Glycerolipids Glycerophospholipids 



We thank Anindya Ghosh for providing wild-type C. elegans (N2) and Escherichia coli OP50 strains as generous gift. We are grateful to Sarman Singh and Pramod Mehta for providing M. smegmatis and M. marinum strains as generous gifts, respectively. We thank Sanjeev Kanojiya for assisting us in mass spectrometry experiments. We thank Varatharajan Sabareesh for his intellectual support in lipidome data analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10123_2019_99_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 14292 kb)
10123_2019_99_MOESM2_ESM.xls (50 kb)
ESM 2 Spread sheet depicting the data obtained from MS-LAMP at 0.5 WR in Control cells for total lipids. (XLS 50 kb)
10123_2019_99_MOESM3_ESM.xls (50 kb)
ESM 3 Spread sheet depicting the data obtained from MS-LAMP at 0.5 WR in Van treated cells for total lipids (XLS 50 kb)
10123_2019_99_MOESM4_ESM.xls (42 kb)
ESM 4 Spread sheet depicting the data obtained from MS-LAMP at 0.5 WR in Control cells for cell wall lipids (XLS 41 kb)
10123_2019_99_MOESM5_ESM.xls (34 kb)
ESM 5 Spread sheet depicting the data obtained from MS-LAMP at 0.5 WR in Van treated cells for cell wall lipids. (XLS 33 kb)
10123_2019_99_MOESM6_ESM.xls (74 kb)
ESM 6 Spread sheet depicting the data obtained from MS-LAMP at 1 WR in Control cells for total lipids. (XLS 74 kb)
10123_2019_99_MOESM7_ESM.xls (80 kb)
ESM 7 Spread sheet depicting the data obtained from MS-LAMP at 1 WR in Van treated cells for total lipids. (XLS 80 kb)
10123_2019_99_MOESM8_ESM.xls (44 kb)
ESM 8 Spread sheet depicting the data obtained from MS-LAMP at 1 WR in Control cells for cell wall lipids. (XLS 44 kb)
10123_2019_99_MOESM9_ESM.xls (42 kb)
ESM 9 Spread sheet depicting the data obtained from MS-LAMP at 1 WR in Van treated cells for cell wall lipids. (XLS 42 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amity Institute of BiotechnologyAmity University HaryanaGurugram (Manesar)India

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