Bioconversion of indole-3-acetonitrile by the N2-fixing bacterium Ensifer meliloti CGMCC 7333 and its Escherichia coli-expressed nitrile hydratase

  • Yun-Xiu Zhao
  • Lei-Lei Guo
  • Shi-Lei Sun
  • Jing-jing Guo
  • Yi-Jun DaiEmail author
Original Article


An N2-fixing bacterium, Ensifer meliloti CGMCC 7333, has been reported to degrade the cyano-containing neonicotinoid insecticides acetamiprid and thiacloprid using a nitrile hydratase (NHase). Here, the bioconversion of indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) by E. meliloti, Escherichia coli overexpressing the NHase, and purified recombinant NHase was studied. E. meliloti converted IAN to the product indole-3-acetamide (IAM), and no nitrilase or amidase activities, or indole-3-acetic acid formation, were detected. Whole cells of E. meliloti converted IAN from the initial content of 6.41 to 0.06 mmol/L in 48 h. Meanwhile, forming 5.99 mmol/L IAM, the molar conversion of 94.4%. E. coli Rosetta overexpressing the NHase from E. meliloti produced 4.46 mmol/L IAM in 5 min, with a conversion rate of 91.1%. The purified NHase had a Vmax for IAN conversion of 294.28 U/mg. Adding 2% and 10% (v/v) dichloromethane to 50 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer containing 200 mg/L IAN increased the NHase activity by 26.8% and 11.5% respectively, while the addition of 20% hexane had no inhibitory effect on IAN bioconversion. E. meliloti shows high NHase activity without forming a byproduct carboxylic acid, and its tolerance of dichloromethane and hexane increases its potential for application in the green biosynthesis of high-value amide compounds.


Dichloromethane Ensifer meliloti Nitrile hydratase Indole-3-acetonitrile Indole-3-acetamide 



The authors would like to thank James Allen, DPhil, from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (, for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript.

Funding information

This research was financed by the National Science Foundation of China (grant number 31570104), the Program for Jiangsu Excellent Scientific and Technological Innovation Team (17CXTD00014), and the Top-notch Academic Programs Project of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

Compliance with conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10123_2019_94_MOESM1_ESM.docx (879 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 879 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yun-Xiu Zhao
    • 1
  • Lei-Lei Guo
    • 1
  • Shi-Lei Sun
    • 1
  • Jing-jing Guo
    • 1
  • Yi-Jun Dai
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Functional Genomics, Jiangsu Engineering and Technology Research Center for Industrialization of Microbial Resources, College of Life ScienceNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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