Laparoscopic total gastrectomy for upper-middle advanced gastric cancer: analysis based on lymph node noncompliance

  • Qi-Yue Chen
  • Guang-Tan Lin
  • Qing Zhong
  • Chao-Hui Zheng
  • Ping Li
  • Jian-Wei Xie
  • Jia-Bin Wang
  • Jian-Xian Lin
  • Jun Lu
  • Long-Long Cao
  • Chang-Ming HuangEmail author
Original Article



Increasing number of clinical studies have shown that laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) with D2 lymph node (LN) dissection is an effective method for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). However, reports on the technical feasibility and oncology efficacy of laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) in the treatment of AGC are rare.


A retrospective analysis of the clinicopathologic data of 1313 patients with clinical stage of cT2-4aN0-3M0 undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy with D2 LN dissection from June 2007 to December 2013 was performed. Noncompliance was defined as patients with more than one LN station absence as described in the protocol for D2 lymphadenectomy in the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA). According to the literature, it was subdivided into LN compliance group (all LN stations were detected), minor LN noncompliance group (1–2 LN stations were not detected), major LN noncompliance group (more than 2 LN stations were not detected). Based on the LN noncompliance, the surgical indications of LTG were analyzed with LDG as control.


Among the 1313 patients, 197 (39.20%) patients and 321(39.71%) patients in the LDG group and the LTG group had minor LN noncompliance, 59(11.70%) patients and 163(20.10%) patients had major LN noncompliance. The difference in the extent of LN noncompliance between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). COX proportional hazards regression analysis elucidated that the LN noncompliance was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS). BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and the history of previous abdominal surgery (PAS) were independent risk factors for major LN noncompliance in LTG group (p < 0.05), with which patients were defined as a LN noncompliance high-risk group. With the exception of LN noncompliance high-risk group, the difference in the extent of LN noncompliance between LTG group and LDG group was still statistically significant (p = 0.008). Tumor diameter > 60 mm is a preoperative risk factor for station #5 LN noncompliance, and no preoperative risk factors for station #6 LN noncompliance were found, with which patients were defined as LN noncompliance middle-risk group.


LN noncompliance is an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in patients after LTG. Based on this finding, patients with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, history of PAS and tumor diameter > 60 mm in the advanced stage of upper-middle gastric cancer represent high/middle-risk groups with LN noncompliance in LTG surgery, which should be carefully selected.


Gastric cancer Laparoscopic total gastrectomy D2 lymph node dissection Lymph node noncompliance Prognosis 


Author contributions

QYC, GTL, CMH conceived the study, analyzed the data, and drafted the manuscript, CHZ and QZ helped critically revise the manuscript for important intellectual content. PL, JWX, JBW, JXL, JL and LLC helped collect data and design the study.


This work was supported by Scientific and technological innovation joint capital projects of Fujian Province, China (no. 2016Y9031). Minimally invasive medical center of Fujian Province (no. [2017]171). National key clinical specialty discipline construction program of China (no. [2012]649).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human rights

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions.

Informed consent

Informed consent or substitute for it was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qi-Yue Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Guang-Tan Lin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qing Zhong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chao-Hui Zheng
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ping Li
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jian-Wei Xie
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jia-Bin Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jian-Xian Lin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jun Lu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Long-Long Cao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chang-Ming Huang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Gastric SurgeryFujian Medical University Union HospitalFuzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of General SurgeryFujian Medical University Union HospitalFuzhouChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of Gastrointestinal CancerFujian Medical UniversityFuzhouChina

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