Gastric Cancer

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 729–737 | Cite as

Family history of cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of gastric cancer and its precursors in a Western population

  • Minkyo Song
  • M. Constanza Camargo
  • Stephanie J. Weinstein
  • Ana F. Best
  • Satu Männistö
  • Demetrius Albanes
  • Charles S. Rabkin
Original Article



Family history may inform risks of gastric cancer and preneoplastic lesions.


We examined associations with history of cancer in first-degree relatives for 307 incident gastric cancer cases among 20,720 male smokers in a prospective study in Finland. Cox regression was used to calculate gastric cancer hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs for low serum pepsinogen, a marker of gastric atrophy.


Gastric cancer risk was associated with gastric cancer history in first-degree relatives overall (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.15–2.12), in fathers (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.55) and in siblings (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.25–3.38). Associations were significant for noncardia (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.30–2.57) but not cardia (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.46–1.87) cancers, and marginal for both intestinal—(HR 1.53, 95% CI 0.92–2.55) and diffuse-type (HR 1.47, 95% CI 0.72–3.03) histologies. Family history of other cancer types was not associated with gastric cancer risk. Family history of gastric cancer was associated with low pepsinogen (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11–1.50).


Family history of gastric cancer is strongly associated with specific subtypes of gastric cancer as well as with gastric atrophy, a risk factor for developing this malignancy.


Family history Gastric cancer Gastric atrophy Risk factors Caucasians 



This study was supported by the Intramural Research Program, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services. The ATBC Study was supported by funding provided by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute and US Public Health Service contracts [HHSN261201500005C].

Compliance with ethical standards

Human rights statement and informed consent

All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of both the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA and the National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. All participants provided written informed consent.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10120_2018_807_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2443 kb) Forest plots for the association of family history of gastric cancer and gastric cancer risk. Abbreviation GC = gastric cancer; young GC; gastric cancers restricted to age 18–45. case%, control% indicate% of gastric cancer family history in cases and controls, respectively


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human ServicesNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Public Health SolutionsNational Institute for Health and WelfareHelsinkiFinland

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