Phthalonitrile Resins Derived from Vanillin: Synthesis, Curing Behavior, and Thermal Properties

  • Yue Han
  • Dong-Hao Tang
  • Guang-Xing Wang
  • Ya-Nan Sun
  • Ying Guo
  • Heng ZhouEmail author
  • Wen-Feng QiuEmail author
  • Tong Zhao


Vanillin was used as sustainable source for phthalonitrile monomer synthesis, and allyl/propargyl ether moieties were introduced to improve the processability at the minimal cost of thermal properties. The synthesis route was optimized to minimize side-reactions and simplify post-processing, and the monomers were obtained in high purity and good yields. The curing behavior, mechanism, and processability of the monomers were studied, and the thermal properties of cured polymers were evaluated. Of the two monomers, the allyl ether-containing one exhibited a wide processing window of 185 °C, and was mainly cured into phthalocyanine and linear aliphatic structures through self-catalytic curing process. Also, the glass transition temperature was higher than 500 °C. In contrast, the propargyl ether-containing monomer could only be partially cured, and heat resistance was found to be compromised. Compared with traditional petroleum-based phthalonitrile resins, the bio-based monomers could be cured without the addition of catalysts, and improvement in processability was achieved at no cost of thermal performances.


Allyl ether Curing mechanism Phthalonitrile Thermal properties Vanillin 


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This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51803059 and 51873215), Guangdong Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Program (No. 2016ZT06C322), and National Defense Science and Technology Innovation Special Zone Project. The authors gratefully thank the Young Elite Scientist Sponsorship Program by CAST (YESS) and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS (No. 2017047). The measurements of solid 13C-NMR were performed at the Center for Physicochemical Analysis and Measurements in ICCAS. The help from Ms. Ningning Wu was acknowledged.

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Phthalonitrile Resins Derived from Vanillin: Synthesis, Curing Behavior and Thermal Properties


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Copyright information

© Chinese Chemical Society Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yue Han
    • 1
  • Dong-Hao Tang
    • 2
  • Guang-Xing Wang
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ya-Nan Sun
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ying Guo
    • 2
  • Heng Zhou
    • 2
    Email author
  • Wen-Feng Qiu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tong Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.South China Advanced Institute for Soft Matter Science and TechnologySouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Institute of ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Sinosteel Anshan Research Institute of Thermo-Energy Co., LTDAnshanChina

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