Advertisement

Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 867–879 | Cite as

Farmers’ perception of climate change in mediterranean Chile

  • Lisandro RocoEmail author
  • Alejandra Engler
  • Boris E. Bravo-Ureta
  • Roberto Jara-Rojas
Original Article

Abstract

Meteorologists predict that climate change will have an increasing impact on ecosystems and agricultural production; however, many farmers do not have a clear perception of climate change or how it may affect their crop yields and overall farming operation in the near future. This study examines climate change perceptions in four rural municipalities in Central Chile, and the effect that exposure to meteorological information has on such perceptions, using a survey conducted in 2011. It uses a probit model to identify the socioeconomic and productive factors associated with what we define as a “clear perception” of climate change. Most farmers in this survey recognize that there have been changes in temperature and precipitation patterns during the last 24 years: About 62 % perceive that the average temperatures have increased; 93 % that precipitation has decreased; and 87 % that droughts are more frequent. The econometric model shows the significance of education and access to meteorological information for climate change perception. The results reveal that younger, more educated producers and those who own their land tend to have a clearer perception of climate change than older, less educated, or tenant farmers. From a policy point of view, it is important to give all farmers information that will help them to adapt to climate change using appropriate farming technologies and practices. Projects and programs designed to enhance understanding of the consequences of climate change will help farmers to develop the management ability to cope with climate risk.

Keywords

Climate change Climate perception Probit models Agriculture Chile 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by a research grant from the Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program (LACEEP) and a doctoral scholarship from Chilean National Comission for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICYT). The authors thank the Excellence Program of Interdisciplinary Research: Adaptation of Agriculture to Climate Change (A2C2) of Universidad de Talca and also the farmers who courteously answered our survey.

References

  1. AGRIMED (2008) Impactos productivos en el sector silvoagropecuario de Chile frente a escenarios de cambio climático. Estudio U. de Chile, CONAMA, ODEPA, FIA, ChileGoogle Scholar
  2. AGU (2013) Revised position statement of the American Geophysical Union. 5 Aug 2013. http://www.agu.org/news/press/pr_archives/2013/2013-38.shtml#.UgqQNGIJmXI
  3. Akompab DA, Bi P, Williams S, Grant J, Walker IA, Auogoustinos M (2013) Heat waves and climate change: applying the health belief model to identify predictors of risk perception and adaptive behaviours in Adelaide, Australia. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10(6):2164–2184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison, I, Bindoff N, Bindschadler R, Cox P, de Noblet-Ducoudré N, England M, Francis J, Gruber N, Haywood A, Karoly D, Kaser G, Le Quéré C, Lenton T, Mann M, McNeil B, Pitman A, Rahmstorf S, Rignot E, Schellnhuber HJ, Schneider S, Sherwood S, Somerville R, Steffen K, Steig E, Visbeck M, Weaver A (2009) The Copenhagen diagnosis, 2009: updating the world on the latest climate science. The University of New South Wales Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  5. Amponsah W (1995) Computer adoption and use of information services by North Carolina commercial farmers. J Agric Appl Econ 27(2):565–576Google Scholar
  6. Andersen LE, Verner D (2010) Social impacts of climate change in Chile: a municipal level analysis of the effects of recent and future climate change on human development and inequality. Policy research working paper 5170. The World Bank. Sustainable Development DepartmentGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnes A, Toma L (2012) A typology of dairy farmer perceptions toward climate change. Clim Chang 112(2):507–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Batte MT (2005) Changing computer use in agriculture: evidence from Ohio. Comput Electron Agric 47:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Browning-Aiken A, Morehouse B, Davis A, Wilder M, Varady R, Goodrich D, Carter R, Moreno D, McGovern ED (2007) Climate, water management, and policy in the San Pedro Basin: results of a survey of Mexican stakeholders near the U.S.–Mexico border. Clim Chang 85:323–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bryan E, Deressa TT, Gbetibouo GA, Ringler C (2009) Adaptation to climate change in Ethiopia and South Africa: options and constraints. Environ Sci Policy 12(4):413–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chaudhary P, Bawa K (2011) Local perceptions of climate change validated by scientific evidence in the Himalayas. Biol Lett 7(5):767–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chaudhary P, Rai S, Wangdi S, Mao A, Rehman N, Chettri S, Bawa K (2011) Consistency of local perceptions of climate change in the Kangchenjunga Himalaya landscape. Curr Sci 101(4):504–513Google Scholar
  13. Chilean Ministry of Agriculture (2012) Plan de adaptación al cambio climático del sector silvoagropecuario. Proposal Accessed February 2013, http://www.mma.gob.cl/1304/articles-52367_PlanAdpatacionCCS.pdf
  14. Christie D, Boninsegna JA, Cleaveland MK, Lara A, Le Quesne C, Morales MS, Mudelsee M, Stahle DW, Villalba R (2011) Aridity changes in the Temperate-Mediterranean transition of the Andes since AD 1346 reconstructed from tree-rings. Clim Dyn 36:1505–1521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clarke CL, Shackleton SE, Powell M (2012) Climate change perceptions, drought responses and views on carbon farming amongst commercial livestock and game farmers in the semiarid Great Fish River Valley, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Afr J Range Forage Sci 29(1):13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clements R, Haggar J, Quezada A, Torres J (2011) Technologies for climate change adaptation: agriculture sector. In: Zhu X (ed) UNEP Risø Centre, RoskildeGoogle Scholar
  17. Comer S, Ekanem E, Muhammad S, Singh SP, Tegegne F (1999) Sustainable and conventional farmers: a comparison of socio-economic characteristics, attitude, and beliefs. J Sustain Agric 15(1):29–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. CONAMA (2006) Estrategia nacional de cambio climático. Comité Nacional Asesor sobre Cambio Global. National Commission for Environment of Chile, ChileGoogle Scholar
  19. Deressa TT (2008) Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. IFPRI Discussion Paper 798. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. ECLAC (2009) La Economía del Cambio Climático en Chile. Synthesis. United Nations. Santiago, ChileGoogle Scholar
  21. Falvey M, Garreaud R (2007) Wintertime precipitation episodes in central Chile: associated meteorological conditions and orographic influences. J Hydrometeor 8:171–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Falvey M, Garreaud R (2009) Regional cooling in a warming world: recent temperature trends in the southeast Pacific and along the west coast of subtropical South America (1979–2006). J Geophys Res 114:D04102Google Scholar
  23. FIA (2010a) El cambio climático en el sector silvoagropecuario de Chile. Fundación para la Innovación Agraria, Ministerio de Agricultura de Chile, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  24. FIA (2010b) Modelos cooperativos para el acceso a Internet en sectores rurales: La experiencia de COOPESIC y sus aprendizajesGoogle Scholar
  25. García de Jalón S, Iglesias A, Quiroga S, Bardají I (2013) Exploring public support for climate change adaptation policies in the Mediterranean region: a case study in Southern Spain. Environ Sci Policy 29:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gbetibouo GA (2009) Understanding farmers’ perceptions and adaptations to climate change and variability: the case of the Limpopo Basin, South Africa. IFPRI discussion paper 849Google Scholar
  27. Gloy BA, Akridge JT (2000) Computer and Internet adoption on large U.S. farms. Int Food Agribus Manag Rev 3:323–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. González P (2004) Behaviour of the cold-hours, degree-days, frosts and precipitations in the Region del Maule’s agroecosystems during the events El Niño 1997 y La Niña 1998–1999. In: Avaria S, Carrasco J, Rutllant J, Yañez E (eds) El Niño-La Niña 1997–2000: Sus efectos en Chile. CONA, Valparaíso, pp 231–252Google Scholar
  29. González J, Velasco R (2008) Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the economic value of land in agricultural systems in Chile. Chil J Agric Res 68(1):56–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greene W (2008) Econometric analysis, 7th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  31. Greene AM, Goddard L, Cousin R (2011) Web tool deconstructs variability in twentieth-century climate. EOS Trans AGU 92(45):397–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hageback J, Sundberg J, Ostwald M, Chen D, Yun X, Knutsson P (2005) Climate variability and land-use change in Danangou Watershed, China: examples of small-scale farmers’ adaptation. Clim Chang 72:189–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Halder P, Sharma R, Alam A (2012) Local perceptions of and responses to climate change: experiences from the natural resource-dependent communities in India. Reg Environ Chang 12:665–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hamilton L, Keim B (2009) Regional variation in perceptions about climate change. Intl J Climatol 29:2348–2352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hansen J, Marx S, Weber E (2004) The role of climate perceptions, expectations, and forecasts in farmer decision making: the argentine pampas and South Florida, IRI Technical Report 04-01Google Scholar
  36. Hansen JE, Ruedy R, Sato M, Lo K (2012) NASA GISS surface temperature (GISTEMP) analysis, in Trends: a compendium of data on global change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak RidgeGoogle Scholar
  37. INE (2010) Cifras Censo 2007. Cuadro 1 y cuadro 6: http://icet.odepa.cl/exp/ficha.php
  38. Jara-Rojas R, Bravo-Ureta BE, Engler A, Díaz J (2013) An analysis of the joint adoption of water conservation and soil conservation in Central Chile. Land Use Policy 32:292–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lata S, Nunn P (2012) Misperceptions of climate-change risk as barriers to climate-change adaptation: a case study from the Rewa Delta, Fiji. Clim Chang 110:169–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lemos MC, Kirchhoff CJ, Ramprasad V (2012) Narrowing the climate information usability gap. Nat Clim Chang 2:789–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li Y, Johnson E, Zaval L (2011) Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming. Psych Sci 22(4):454–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maddala GS (1987) Limited-dependent and qualitative variables in econometrics. Econometric society monographs. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Manandhar S, Vogt DS, Perret SR, Kazama F (2011) Adapting cropping systems to climate change in Nepal: a cross-regional study of farmers’ perception and practices. Reg Environ Chang 11(2):335–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marcott S, Shakun JD, Clark PU, Mix AC (2013) A reconstruction of regional and global temperature for the past 11,300 years. Science 339(6124):1198–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marx SM, Weber EU, Orlove BS, Leiserowitz A, Krantz DH, Roncoli C, Phillips J (2007) Communication and mental processes: experiential and analytic processing of uncertain climate information. Glob Environ Chang 17(1):47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mertz O, Mbow C, Reenberg A, Diouf A (2009) Farmers’ perception of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel. J Environ Manag 43:804–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mertz O, D’haen S, Maiga A, Moussa IB, Barbier B, Diouf A, Diallo D, Da ED, Dabi D (2012) Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of west Africa. Ambio 41:380–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Moelesti ME, Mellaart EAR, Mpandeli NS, Hamandanawa H (2012) The use of rainfall forecasts as a decision guide for small-scale farming in Limpopo Province, South Africa. J Agric Educ Ext 2012:1–13Google Scholar
  49. NOAA-NCDC (2011) State of the climate: global analysis for annual 2011. NOAA National Climatic Data Center. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/2011/13
  50. ODEPA (2011) Chilean agriculture overview. Agrarian Policies and Studies Bureau, Chilean Ministry of Agriculture, ChileGoogle Scholar
  51. Osbahr H, Dorward P, Stern R, Cooper S (2011) Supporting agricultural innovation in Uganda to respond to climate risk: linking climate change and variability with farmers’ perceptions. Expl Agric 47(2):293–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Otto-Banaszak I, Matzac P, Wessler J, Weschung F (2011) Different perceptions of adaptation to climate change: a mental model approach applied to the evidence from expert interviews. Reg Environ Chang 11:217–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Paeth H, Otto C (2009) The population’s view on climate change and mitigation: inferences for media and policy. Adv Sci Lett 2:310–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Parry M (2001) Climate change: where should research priorities be? Glob Environ Chang 11:257–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Patt AG, Schröter D (2008) Perceptions of climate risk in Mozambique: implications for the success of adaptation strategies. Glob Environ Chang 18(3):458–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Piya L, Maharjan K, Joshi N (2013) Determinants of adaptation practices to climate change by Chepang households in the rural Mid-Hills of Nepal. Reg Environ Chang 13(2):437–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. PytlikZillig L, Hu Q, Hubbard K, Lynne G, Bruning R (2010) Improving farmers’ perception and use of climate predictions in farming decisions: a transition model. J Appl Meteor Climatol 49(6):1333–1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rao KPC, Ndegwa WG, Kizito K, Oyoo A (2011) Climate variability and change: farmer perceptions and understanding of intraseasonal variability in rainfall and associated risk in semiarid Kenya. Expl Agric 47(2):267–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rebetez M (1996) Public expectations as an element of human perception of climate change. Clim Chang 32:495–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Retamal MR, Rojas J, Parra O (2011) Percepción al cambio climático y a la gestión del agua: aportes de las estrategias metodológicas cualitativas para su comprensión. Ambient Soc 14(1):175–194Google Scholar
  61. Rolfe J, Gregor S, Menzies D (2003) Reasons why farmers in Australia adopt the internet. Electron Commer Res Appl 2:27–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Salinger MJ, Sivakumar MVK, Motha R (2005) Reducing vulnerability of agriculture and forestry to climate variability and change: workshop summary and recommendations. Clim Chang 70(1–2):341–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sanchez-Cortes M, Lazos E (2011) Indigenous perception of changes in climate variability and its relationship with agriculture in a Zoque community of Chiapas, Mexico. Clim Chang 107(3–4):363–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sayadi S, Calatrava-Requena J (2008) Gender needs awareness and gender asymmetry: an analysis of a rural women survey in mountainous areas of south-eastern Spain. Span J Agric Res 6(3):453–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shisanya CA, Khayesi M (2007) How is climate change perceived in relation to other socioeconomic and environmental threats in Nairobi, Kenya? Clim Chang 85:271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Silvestri S, Bryan E, Ringler C, Herrero M, Okoba B (2012) Climate change perception and adaptation of agro-pastoral communities in Kenya. Reg Environ Chang 12:791–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sofoluwe N, Tijane A, Baruwa O (2011) Farmers’ perception and adaptation to climate change in Osun State, Nigeria. Afr J Agric Res 6(20):4789–4794Google Scholar
  68. Solomon A, Goddard L, Kumar A, Carton J, Deser C, Fukumori I, Greene A, Hegerl G, Kirtman B, Kushnir Y, Newman M, Smith D, Vimont D, Delworth T, Meehl G, Stockdale T (2011) Distinguishing the roles of natural and anthropogenically forced decadal climate variability: implications for prediction. Bull Am Meteor Soc 92:141–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tambo J, Abdoulaye T (2013) Smallholder farmers’ perceptions of and adaptations to climate change in the Nigerian Savanna. Reg Environ Chang 13(2):375–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Taragola NM, Van Lierde DF (2011) Factors affecting the Internet behaviour of horticultural growers in Flanders, Belgium. Comput Electron Agric 70(2):369–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Thurow AP, Conner JR, Thurow TL, Garriga MD (2001) A preliminary analysis of Texas ranchers’ willingness to participate in a brush control cost-sharing program to improve off-site water yields. Ecol Econ 37:139–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. UNDP (2008) Desarrollo humano en Chile rural. Seis millones por nuevos caminos. Santiago de Chile. United Nations Development Programme. Santiago, ChileGoogle Scholar
  73. USDA (2013) Climate change and agriculture in the United States: effects and adaptation. Agricultural Research Service. Technical Bulletin 1935. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  74. VanderMolen K (2011) Percepciones de cambio climático y estrategias de adaptación en las comunidades agrícolas de Cotacachi. Ecuador Debate 82:145–158Google Scholar
  75. Vedwan N, Rhoades R (2001) Climate change in the Western Himalayas of India: a study of local perception and response. Clim Res 19:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vera-Toscano E, Gomez-Limon JA, Estrada EM, Fernandez FG (2007) Individuals’ opinion on agricultural multifunctionality. Span J Agric Res 5(3):271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vignola R, Klinsky S, Tam J, McDaniels T (2013) Public perception, knowledge and policy support for mitigation and adaption to climate change in Costa Rica: comparisons with North American and European studies. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 18(3):303–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Warren MF (2004) Farmers online: drivers and impediments in adoption of Internet in UK agricultural businesses. J Small Bus Enterp Dev 11(3):371–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Weber EU (1997) Perception and expectation of climate change: precondition for economic and technological adaptation. In: Bazerman M, Messick D, Tenbrunsel A, Wade-Benzoni K (eds) Environment, ethics, and behavior: the psychology of environmental valuation and degradation. New Lexington Press, San Francisco, pp 314–341Google Scholar
  80. Weber EU (2006) Experience based and description based perceptions of long term risk: why global warming does not scare us (yet). Clim Chang 77:103–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Weber EU, Stern PC (2011) Public understanding of climate change in the United States. Am Psychol 66(4):315–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisandro Roco
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alejandra Engler
    • 2
  • Boris E. Bravo-Ureta
    • 2
    • 3
  • Roberto Jara-Rojas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture and ForestryUniversidad Católica del MauleTalcaChile
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural EconomicsUniversidad de TalcaTalcaChile
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Department of EconomicsUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

Personalised recommendations