Improvement in viability and mineralization of osteoporotic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell through combined application of photobiomodulation therapy and oxytocin

  • Somaye Fallahnezhad
  • Vahid Jajarmi
  • Sarira Shahnavaz
  • Abdullah Amini
  • Seyed Kamran Ghoreishi
  • Mahsa Kazemi
  • Sufan Chien
  • Mohammad BayatEmail author
Original Article


The probable positive effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and oxytocin (OT) treatments together or alone were evaluated on cell viability along with the changes in the gene expression of Osteocalcin (OC), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) levels of sham (healthy)-Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell(BMMSC) and ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis (OVX)-BMMSC. BMMSC was harvested from healthy and OVX rats and was cultured in osteogenic induction medium (OIM). There were five groups of BMMSCs: (1) sham -BMMSCs; (2) control -OVX-BMMSCs; (3) OT-treated-OVX-BMMSCs; (4) PBMT–treated-OVX-BMMSCs, and (5) OT + PBMT-OVX-BMMSCs. In all 5 groups, BMMSC viability and proliferation as well as gene expression of OC, OPG, and RUNX2 were evaluated. PBMT and PBMT + OT treatments showed a promising effect on the increased viability of OVX-BMMSC (ANOVA test; LSD test, p = 0.01, p = 0.002). The results of gene expression analysis revealed that the sham- BMMSCs responded optimally to OT treatment. It was also found that OVX-BMMSCs responded optimally to PBMT + OT and PBMT treatments at early and middle stages of osteogenic induction process. Nevertheless, they responded optimally to PBMT + OT and OT especially at the late stage of osteogenic induction process. PBMT and PBMT + OT treatments significantly increased viability of OVX-BMMSC in OIM in vitro. Both PBMT and PBMT + OT treatments could promote mineralization of OVX-BMMSC in the culture medium at early and middle stages of osteogenic induction process. Both OT and PBMT + OT treatments could promote mineralization of OVX-BMMSC in vitro at late stages of osteogenic induction process.


Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells Low-level laser therapy Photobiomodulation therapy Oxytocin Ovariectomy Post-menopausal osteoporosis Osteocalcin Osteoprotegerin Runt-related transcription factor 2 


Funding information

This article was financially supported by the Research Department of the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (Grant no 1393-1-91-13237).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in MedicineShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Immunology, School of MedicineShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Biology and Anatomical SciencesShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of StatisticsUniversity of QomQomIran
  6. 6.Price Institute of Surgical ResearchUniversity of Louisville, and Noveratech LLC of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

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