Effects of muscular strength training and growth hormone (GH) supplementation on femoral bone tissue: analysis by Raman spectroscopy, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and mechanical resistance

  • Robson Chacon CastoldiEmail author
  • Guilherme Akio Tamura Ozaki
  • Thiago Alves Garcia
  • Ines Cristina Giometti
  • Tatiana Emy Koike
  • Regina Celi Trindade Camargo
  • João Domingos Augusto dos Santos Pereira
  • Carlos José Leopoldo Constantino
  • Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada
  • José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho
  • William Dias Belangero
Original Article


The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of muscular strength training and growth hormone (GH) supplementation on femoral bone tissue by Raman spectroscopy (Raman), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and mechanical resistance (F-max) analysis. A total of 40 male Wistar animals, 60 days old, were used. The animals were distributed into four groups: control (C), control with GH (GHC), muscular strength training (T), and muscular strength training with GH (GHT). Blood samples were collected for the quantification of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and the femurs were removed for analysis by Raman, DXA, and F-max. A more pronounced increase in the bone mineral components was verified in the T group, for all the variables obtained by the Raman (calcium, phosphate, amide, and collagen). In addition, for animals submitted to GH supplementation, there was a reduction in the variable bone mineral density (BMD) obtained by the DXA (p < 0.05). Finally, the animals that received GH supplementation presented a higher F-max, but without statistical significance (p > 0.05). It was concluded that animals that received GH supplementation demonstrated a decrease in BMD. In addition, T alone was able to promote increased calcium, phosphate, amide, and collagen compounds in bone tissue.


Physical training Growth hormone Bone tissue Muscular strength Anabolics 



The authors are grateful to the Brazilian Agency of Resources for Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) for supporting the development of this study.


This study was funded by Brazilian Agency of Resources for Higher Education Personnel (CAPES).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted. All procedures were approved by the ethics committee for animal use from University of Western São Paulo - UNOESTE (SP, Brazil; protocol no. 2626). This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robson Chacon Castoldi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Guilherme Akio Tamura Ozaki
    • 1
  • Thiago Alves Garcia
    • 1
  • Ines Cristina Giometti
    • 4
  • Tatiana Emy Koike
    • 5
  • Regina Celi Trindade Camargo
    • 5
  • João Domingos Augusto dos Santos Pereira
    • 6
  • Carlos José Leopoldo Constantino
    • 6
  • Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada
    • 7
  • José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho
    • 5
  • William Dias Belangero
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Medical SciencesUniversidade Estadual de Campinas– UNICAMPCampinas CityBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Physical EducationUniversidade do Oeste Paulista – UNOESTEPresidente Prudente CityBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratório de Análise da Plasticidade Muscular – LAPMUSUNESP/FCT – Campus de Presidente PrudentePresidente PrudenteBrazil
  4. 4.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversidade do Oeste Paulista – UNOESTEPresidente Prudente CityBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Physical TherapyUniversidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” – UNESPPresidente Prudente CityBrazil
  6. 6.Department of Physics, Chemistry, and BiologyUniversidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” – UNESPPresidente Prudente CityBrazil
  7. 7.Department of Animal Support, Production, and HealthUniversidade Estadual Paulista– UNESPAraçatuba CityBrazil

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