Intravenous laser wavelength radiation effect on LCAT, PON1, catalase, and FRAP in diabetic rats

  • Ahmad AmjadiEmail author
  • Hossein Mirmiranpour
  • Seyed Omid Sobhani
  • Niloofar Moazami Goudarzi
Original Article


The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous irradiation of different low-level laser wavelengths on the activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), paraoxonase (PON1), catalase, and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in diabetic rats. First, diabetes was induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ). Enzymes’ activity was measured in the blood samples and compared before and after intravenous laser blood irradiation. We used four continuous-wave lasers—IR (λ = 808 nm), Red (λ = 638 nm), Green (λ = 532 nm), and Blue (λ = 450 nm)—to compare the wavelength’s effect on different enzymes’ activity. Laser power was fixed at 0.01 mW and laser energy was changed by 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-min time of radiations.

The enzymes’ activity of blood samples was measured 2, 6, and 24 h after radiation. The results show an increase in the activity of different enzymes when compare with diabetic non-radiated samples. More importantly, with a constant laser energy, the enzymes’ activity increased with decreasing laser wavelength. It is important to note that with a constant laser energy, as the wavelength decreases, the photon energy increases and the number of photons decrease, while the enzyme’s activity elevation increases. As a result, we can conclude that in intravenous low-level laser therapy, photon energy is more important than the number of photons even if their product, energy, is kept constant.


LCAT Catalase PON1 FRAP Activity Low-level laser therapy Laser wavelength 



Lasers were supplied by International Faran Tech Co. We thank Miss Salile Khandani and Miss Nafise Goli for their help. Special thanks to Dr. Marjaneh Hejazi for fruitful discussion.

Funding information

This project was supported by Sharif Applied Physics research centre at Sharif University of Technology.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical considerations

The study protocol was approved by the animal ethics review committee, in accordance with the guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals prepared by Tehran University. Informed consent of this investigation has been ordered by Medical Physics and Laser Lab of Physic Department at Sharif University of Technology.


  1. 1.
    Roelandts R (2002) The history of phototherapy: something new under the sun? J Am Acad Dermatol 46(6):926–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bagheri HS, Mousavi M, Rezabakhsh A, Rezaie J, Rasta SH, Nourazarian A, Avci ÇB, Tajalli H, Talebi M, Oryan A et al (2018) Low-level laser irradiation at a high power intensity increased human endothelial cell exosome secretion via Wnt signaling. Lasers Med Sci 33(5):1131–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harding JJ (1991) Cataract: biochemistry, epidemiology and pharmacology. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kappelle PJ, de Boer JF, Perton FG, Annema W, de Vries R, Dullaart RP, Tietge UJ (2012) Increased LCAT activity and hyperglycaemia decrease the anti-oxidative functionality of HDL. Eur J Clin Investig 42(5):487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chance B, Sies H, Boveris A (1979) Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiol Rev 59(3):527–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feher J, Csomos G, Vereckei A (1987) Free radical reactions in medicine. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pirart J (1978) Diabetes mellitus and its degenerative complications: a prospective study of 4,400 patients observed between 1947 and 1973. Diabetes Care 1(3):168–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brownlee M (1995) The pathological implications of protein glycation. Clin Invest Med 18(4):275–281Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sokolovic D, Djindjic B, Nikolic J, Bjelakovic G, Pavlovic D, Kocic G, Krstic D, Cvetkovic T, Pavlovic V (2008) Melatonin reduces oxidative stress induced by chronic exposure of microwave radiation from mobile phones in rat brain. J Radiat Res 49(6):579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horikoshi S, Nakamura K, Kawaguchi M, Kondo J, Serpone N (2016) Effect of microwave radiation on the activity of catalase. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide under microwave and conventional heating. RSC Adv 6(53):48237–48244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sallam SM, Awad AM (2008) Effect of static magnetic field on the electrical properties and enzymes function of rat liver. Rom J Biophys 18(4):337–347Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vojisavljevic V, Pirogova E, Cosic I (2007) Influence of electromagnetic radiation on enzyme kinetics. In: 2007 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp 5021–5024Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fedoseyeva G, Karu T, Lyapunova T, Pomoshnikova N, Meissel M (1988) The activation of yeast metabolism with He-Ne laser radiations-II. Activity of enzymes of oxidative and phosphorous metabolism. Lasers Life Sci 2:147–154Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Silva Macedo R, Peres Leal M, Braga TT, Barioni ED, de Oliveira Duro S, Ratto Tempestini Horliana AC, Camara NOS, Marcourakis T, Farsky SHP, Lino-dos Santos-Franco A (2016) Photobiomodulation therapy decreases oxidative stress in the lung tissue after formaldehyde exposure: role of oxidant/antioxidant enzymes. Mediat InflammGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Denadai AS, Aydos RD, Silva IS, Olmedo L, de Senna Cardoso BM, da Silva BAK, Carvalho P (2015) Acute effects of low-level laser therapy (660 nm) on oxidative stress levels in diabetic rats with skin wounds. J Exp Ther Oncol 11:85–89Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen Y-P, Liu Y-J, Wang X-L, Ren Z-Y, Yue M (2005) Effect of microwave and He-Ne laser on enzyme activity and biophoton emission of Isatis indigotica Fort. J Integr Plant Biol 47(7):849–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen H, Wang H, Li Y, Liu W, Wang C, Chen Z (2016) Biological effects of low-level laser irradiation on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. AIP Adv 6(4):045018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pillai PU, Padma N (1998) Studies on the effect of laser radiation and other mutagens on plants, Ph.D. thesis, Cochin University of Science And TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Simoes A, Ganzerla E, Yamaguti PM, de Paula Eduardo C, Nicolau J (2009) Effect of diode laser on enzymatic activity of parotid glands of diabetic rats. Lasers Med Sci 24(4):591–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ibuki FK, Simoes A, Nogueira FN (2010) Antioxidant enzymatic defense in salivary glands of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a temporal study. Cell Biochem Funct 28(6):503–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Simoes A, Nogueira FN, de Paula Eduardo C, Nicolau J (2010) Diode laser decreases the activity of catalase on submandibular glands of diabetic rats. Photomed Laser Surg 28(1):91–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sim ̃oes A, Siqueira WL, Lamers ML, Santos MF, de Paula Eduardo C, Nicolau J (2009) Laser phototherapy effect on protein metabolism parameters of rat salivary glands. Lasers Med Sci 24(2):202–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simoes A, de Oliveira E, Campos L, Nicolau J (2009) Ionic and histological studies of salivary glands in rats with diabetes and their glycemic state after laser irradiation. Photomed Laser Surg 27(6):877–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Campos L, Nicolau J, Arana-Chavez VE, Sim ̃oes A (2014) Effect of laser phototherapy on enzymatic activity of salivary glands of hamsters treated with 5-fluorouracil. Photochem Photobiol 90(3):667–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Da Silva NS, Potrich JW (2010) Effect of gaalas laser irradiation on enzyme activity. Photomed Laser Surg 28(3):431–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mirmiranpour H, Shams Nosrati F, Sobhani SO, Nazifi Takantape S, Amjadi A (2018) Effect of low level laser irradiation on the function of glycated catalase. J Lasers Med Sci 9(3):212–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tani S, Takahashi A, Nagao K, Hirayama A (2016) Association of lecithin–cholesterol acyltransferase activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate and low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity with cardiovascular risk: a cross-sectional study. Heart Vessel 31(6):831–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang X, Guo H, Li Y, Wang H, He J, Mu L, Hu Y, Ma J, Yan Y, Li S et al (2018) Interactions among genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport and in the response to environmental factors in dyslipidemia in subjects from the Xinjiang rural area. PLoS One 13(5):e0196042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rousset X, Shamburek R, Vaisman B, Amar M, Remaley AT (2011) Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase: an anti- or pro-atherogenic factor? Curr Atheroscler Rep 13(3):249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nakhjavani M, Asgharani F, Khalilzadeh O, Esteghamati A, Ghaneei A, Morteza A, Anvari M (2011) Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is negatively correlated with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Med Sci 341(2):92–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Calabresi L, Franceschini G (2010) Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase, high-density lipoproteins, and atheroprotection in humans. Trends Cardiovas Med 20(2):50–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ceron JJ, Tecles F, Tvarijonaviciute A (2014) Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) measurement: an update. BMC Vet Res 10(1):74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Litvinov D, Mahini H, Garelnabi M (2012) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of paraoxonase 1: implication in arteriosclerosis diseases. N Am J Med Sci 4(11):523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kowalska K, Socha E, Milnerowicz H (2015) The role of paraoxonase in cardiovascular diseases. Ann Clin Lab Sci 45(2):226–233Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Bisgaier CL, Newton RS, Primo-Parmo SL, La Du BN (1998) Paraoxonase inhibits high-density lipoprotein oxidation and preserves its functions. A possible peroxidative role for paraoxonase. J Clin Invest 101(8):1581–1590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Camps J, Marsillach J, Joven J (2009) The paraoxonases: role in human diseases and methodological difficulties in measurement. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 46(2):83–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Costa LG, Giordano G, Furlong CE (2011) Pharmacological and dietary modulators of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and expression: the hunt goes on. Biochem Pharmacol 81(3):337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mackness MI, Mackness B, Durrington PN (2002) Paraoxonase and coronary heart disease. Atheroscler Suppl 3(4):49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Scacchi R, Gambina G, Martini MC, Broggio E, Vilardo T, Corbo RM (2003) Different pattern of association of paraoxonase Gln192? Arg polymorphism with sporadic late-onset Alzheimer’s disease and coronary artery disease. Neurosci Lett 339(1):17–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hisalkar P, Patne A, Karnik A, Fawade M, Mumbare S (2012) Ferric reducing ability of plasma with lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetes. Age (Yr) 42:8–70Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Esteghamati A, Eskandari D, Mirmiranpour H, Noshad S, Mousavizadeh M, Hedayati M, Nakhjavani M (2013) Effects of metformin on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr 32(2):179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rad M, Rabizadeh S, Salehi S, Mirmiranpour H, Esteghamati A, Jafari R et al (2017) Advanced end glycation products, advanced oxidation protein products and ferritin reducing ability of plasma as markers of diabetic retinopathy. Austin J Endocrinol Diabetes 4(1):1057Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Benzie IF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239(1):70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Amjadi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hossein Mirmiranpour
    • 2
  • Seyed Omid Sobhani
    • 1
  • Niloofar Moazami Goudarzi
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Laser and Medical Physics Lab, Department of PhysicsSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Valiasr Hospital, School of MedicineTehran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Physics and AstronomyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations