Laryngeal temperature simulations during carbon dioxide laser irradiation delivered by a scanning micromanipulator

  • Lou ReinischEmail author
  • C. Gaelyn Garrett
Original Article


We use scatter-limited phototherapy techniques to calculate the time-dependent temperature profiles of incisions made with a commercial carbon dioxide laser being used to make a 1-mm incision under computer control using the Digital Acublade™ and with incisions made with the same laser under manual control. The goal is to understand the differences in the amount of lateral thermal damage that is likely from the computer-controlled incisions versus the manually controlled incisions. The temperature profiles are calculated from the absorption and scatter of light in a homogeneous material. The resulting temperature profiles are presented as videos showing how the tissue heats up and cools down with the incident laser pulses. The time-dependent thermal distributions indicate that the computer-controlled laser incision could show as little as 210 μm of lateral thermal damage, whereas the manually controlled laser incisions could show as much as 375 μm of lateral thermal damage. The computer-controlled laser incision is able to control laser pulses fast enough that subsequent pulses can ablate away tissue with a significant amount of residual heat from the previous laser pulse. Using the scatter-limited phototherapy techniques, we can see how a computer-controlled laser can make incisions with less thermal damage by ablating away tissue holding a significant amount of heat from the previous pulse before it has time to diffuse through the tissue. This method of heat removal from laser incisions has not been previously described or demonstrated.


Carbon dioxide laser Incision Computer control Lateral thermal damage Scatter-limited phototherapy 


Compliance with ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Academic AffairsNew York Institute of TechnologyManhattanUSA
  2. 2.Department. of OtolaryngologyVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA

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