Effect of light-emitting diodes, platelet-rich plasma, and their combination on the activity of sheep tenocytes
- 25 Downloads
Healthy tendons play an important role in joint movements and subjected to a group of pathologies called tendinopathy due to multiple factors. Tendons have a slowly repairing process due to the low vascularity and cellularity. Treatment options aimed at potentiating the healing response and relieving symptoms. Phototherapy and platelet-rich plasma were novel treatment modalities in tendons based on photobiomodulation and growth factors during healing, and the results were encouraging suggesting calibrating treatment parameters. This study utilizes cell culture to explore the potential effect of light-emitting diode and/or growth factors in the form of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the activity of tenocytes isolated from sheep Achilles tendons by measuring the cell metabolism and cell mobility using cell viability and migration assays to proof safety and confirm activity. Results showed that sheep tenocyte-cultured groups treated with 5% platelet-rich plasma alone or combined with 4 J/cm2 light-emitting diode have increased viability significantly when compared to control group after a 48 h, while light-emitting diode treatment has not decreased cell migration significantly when compared with control. Result suggests that using platelet-rich plasma alone or combined with light-emitting diode might have potential to enhance healing response at the conditions applied. PRP could enhance proliferation while LED could enhance migration and proliferation. Further research is needed at longer durations.
KeywordsLight-emitting diode Platelet-rich plasma Phototherapy Tenocytes Tissue culture model Tendinopathy
J. A. M. Alzyoud is grateful to Hamdi Mango Centre for Scientific Research, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, for their support.
This research is partially supported by Hamdi Mango Centre for Scientific Research, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
No informed consent is needed (in vitro study).
- 4.Steiner R (2011) Basic laser physics. Laser and IPL Technology in Dermatology and Aesthetic Medicine. Springer, In, pp 3–22Google Scholar
- 13.Hamblin MR, Huang Y (2013) Handbook of photomedicine. Taylor & FrancisGoogle Scholar
- 16.de Mattos LHL, Álvarez LEC, Yamada ALM, Hussni CA, Rodrigues CA, Watanabe MJ, Alves ALG (2015) Effect of phototherapy with light-emitting diodes (890 nm) on tendon repair: an experimental model in sheep. Lasers Med Sci 30 (1):193–201Google Scholar
- 23.Anitua E, Andia I, Sanchez M, Azofra J, del Mar Zalduendo M, de la Fuente M, Nurden P, Nurden AT (2005) Autologous preparations rich in growth factors promote proliferation and induce VEGF and HGF production by human tendon cells in culture. J Orthop Res 23(2):281–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orthres.2004.08.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Freshney RI (2015) Culture of animal cells: a manual of basic technique and specialized applications. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
- 32.O'brien J, Wilson I, Orton T, Pognan F (2000) Investigation of the Alamar blue (resazurin) fluorescent dye for the assessment of mammalian cell cytotoxicity. FEBS J 267(17):5421–5426Google Scholar
- 40.Albuquerque-Pontes GM, Casalechi HL, Tomazoni SS, Serra AJ, Ferreira CSB, Brito RBO, de Melo BL, Vanin AA, Monteiro K, Delle H, Frigo L, Marcos RL, de Carvalho PTC, Leal-Junior ECP (2018) Photobiomodulation therapy protects skeletal muscle and improves muscular function of mdx mice in a dose-dependent manner through modulation of dystrophin. Lasers Med Sci 33(4):755–764. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-017-2405-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 41.de Almeida P, Tomazoni SS, Frigo L, de Carvalho Pde T, Vanin AA, Santos LA, Albuquerque-Pontes GM, De Marchi T, Tairova O, Marcos RL, Lopes-Martins RA, Leal-Junior EC (2014) What is the best treatment to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine release in acute skeletal muscle injury induced by trauma in rats: low-level laser therapy, diclofenac, or cryotherapy? Lasers Med Sci 29(2):653–658. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-013-1377-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 42.de Almeida P, Lopes-Martins RA, Tomazoni SS, Albuquerque-Pontes GM, Santos LA, Vanin AA, Frigo L, Vieira RP, Albertini R, de Carvalho Pde T, Leal-Junior EC (2013) Low-level laser therapy and sodium diclofenac in acute inflammatory response induced by skeletal muscle trauma: effects in muscle morphology and mRNA gene expression of inflammatory markers. Photochem Photobiol 89(2):501–507. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01232.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 43.Marcos RL, Leal-Junior EC, Arnold G, Magnenet V, Rahouadj R, Wang X, Demeurie F, Magdalou J, de Carvalho MH, Lopes-Martins RA (2012) Low-level laser therapy in collagenase-induced Achilles tendinitis in rats: analyses of biochemical and biomechanical aspects. J Orthop Res 30(12):1945–1951. https://doi.org/10.1002/jor.22156 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 44.Tomazoni SS, Frigo L, Dos Reis Ferreira TC, Casalechi HL, Teixeira S, de Almeida P, Muscara MN, Marcos RL, Serra AJ, de Carvalho PTC, Leal-Junior ECP (2017) Effects of photobiomodulation therapy and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on skeletal muscle injury induced by contusion in rats-part 1: morphological and functional aspects. Lasers Med Sci 32(9):2111–2120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-017-2346-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 45.Tomazoni SS, Leal-Junior EC, Pallotta RC, Teixeira S, de Almeida P, Lopes-Martins RA (2017) Effects of photobiomodulation therapy, pharmacological therapy, and physical exercise as single and/or combined treatment on the inflammatory response induced by experimental osteoarthritis. Lasers Med Sci 32(1):101–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-016-2091-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 46.Tomazoni SS, Frigo L, Dos Reis Ferreira TC, Casalechi HL, Teixeira S, de Almeida P, Muscara MN, Marcos RL, Serra AJ, de Carvalho PTC, Leal-Junior ECP (2017) Effects of photobiomodulation therapy and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on skeletal muscle injury induced by contusion in rats-part 2: biochemical aspects. Lasers Med Sci 32(8):1879–1887. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-017-2299-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 47.Tomazoni SS, Leal-Junior EC, Frigo L, Pallotta RC, Teixeira S, de Almeida P, Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins RA (2016) Isolated and combined effects of photobiomodulation therapy, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and physical activity in the treatment of osteoarthritis induced by papain. J Biomed Opt 21(10):108001. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.Jbo.21.10.108001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 48.Marcos RL, Leal Junior EC, Messias Fde M, de Carvalho MH, Pallotta RC, Frigo L, dos Santos RA, Ramos L, Teixeira S, Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins RA (2011) Infrared (810 nm) low-level laser therapy in rat achilles tendinitis: a consistent alternative to drugs. Photochem Photobiol 87(6):1447–1452. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00999.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 49.dos Santos SA, Alves AC, Leal-Junior EC, Albertini R, Vieira RP, Ligeiro AP, Junior JA, de Carvalho Pde T (2014) Comparative analysis of two low-level laser doses on the expression of inflammatory mediators and on neutrophils and macrophages in acute joint inflammation. Lasers Med Sci 29 (3):1051–1058. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-013-1467-2
- 50.Santos LA, Marcos RL, Tomazoni SS, Vanin AA, Antonialli FC, Grandinetti Vdos S, Albuquerque-Pontes GM, de Paiva PR, Lopes-Martins RA, de Carvalho Pde T, Bjordal JM, Leal-Junior EC (2014) Effects of pre-irradiation of low-level laser therapy with different doses and wavelengths in skeletal muscle performance, fatigue, and skeletal muscle damage induced by tetanic contractions in rats. Lasers Med Sci 29(5):1617–1626. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-014-1560-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 51.da Rosa AS, dos Santos AF, da Silva MM, Facco GG, Perreira DM, Alves AC, Leal Junior EC, de Carvalho Pde T (2012) Effects of low-level laser therapy at wavelengths of 660 and 808 nm in experimental model of osteoarthritis. Photochem Photobiol 88(1):161–166. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01032.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar