Antifungal efficacy of photodynamic therapy with TONS 504 for pathogenic filamentous fungi

  • Kentaro Sueoka
  • Taiichiro ChikamaEmail author
  • Yunialthy Dwia Pertiwi
  • Ji-Ae Ko
  • Yoshiaki Kiuchi
  • Takemasa Sakaguchi
  • Akira Obana
Original Article


The pathogenic filamentous fungi Fusarium solani (F. solani) and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) are common causes of fungal keratitis. We have here evaluated the antifungal efficacy of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with the novel chlorin derivative TONS 504 and a light-emitting diode (LED) with a wavelength of 660 nm for these fungal species. Isolated fungal spores were irradiated at LED energies of 10, 20, or 30 J/cm2 in the presence of TONS 504 at concentrations of 1 or 10 mg/L. As a control, spores were exposed to TONS 504 or LED radiation alone. The treated spores were then cultured on potato dextrose agar plates at 25 °C for 3 to 4 days before determination of colony formation as a measure of viability. Fungal growth was inhibited in a manner dependent on both LED energy and TONS 504 concentration. The inhibitory effect on F. solani was complete with TONS 504 at a concentration of 1 mg/L and LED irradiation at 30 J/cm2 as well as at a TONS 504 concentration of 10 mg/L and LED irradiation at 10, 20, or 30 J/cm2. In contrast, that on A. fumigatus was only partial at a TONS 504 concentration of 10 mg/L and LED irradiation at 20 or 30 J/cm2. The antifungal effect of PACT on A. fumigatus was thus inferior to that on F. solani. PACT with TONS 504 and an LED thus warrants further evaluation with regard to its potential effectiveness for the treatment of infectious fungal keratitis.


Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) Filamentous fungi Fusarium solani Aspergillus fumigatus Fungal keratitis Chlorin derivative 



We thank Isao Sakata (Porphyrin Laboratory, Okayama, Japan) for providing information on TONS 504, and Akira Ichikawa (CCS, Kyoto, Japan) for building the LED device according to our design.


This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (nos. 15K10894 and 18K09411).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Graduate School of Biomedical SciencesHiroshima UniversityHiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyHasanuddin UniversityMakassar CityIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Virology, Graduate School of Biomedical SciencesHiroshima UniversityHiroshimaJapan
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologySeirei Hamamatsu General HospitalShizuokaJapan

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