Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 433–440 | Cite as

Effects of antibacterial photodynamic therapy on salivary mutans streptococci in 5- to 6-year-olds with severe early childhood caries

  • Majid Bargrizan
  • Reza FekrazadEmail author
  • Niloofar Goudarzi
  • Nastaran Goudarzi
Original Article


Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (A-PDT) has been shown to kill oral bacteria in the planktonic culture, dental plaque, and biofilm. This study sought to assess the antimicrobial effect of A-PDT with toluidine blue O (TBO) and diode laser on salivary mutans streptococci in 5–6-year-olds with severe early childhood caries (SECC). This case-control study was conducted on 56 children with SECC divided into four groups, namely 0.1 mg/mL TBO, diode laser (633 nm, 20 mW, 6 J/cm2), combination of the two, and no intervention control group. A-PDT was performed on days 1 and 3. Salivary samples were collected before and after A-PDT on days 1 and 3, and 1 and 2 weeks after the second intervention (day 3). Samples were cultured on mitis salivarius agar, and after incubation, the colonies were counted. Data were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA, ANCOVA, and paired comparisons with least square difference and Tukey’s test. Bacterial count significantly decreased on days 1 and 3, and 1 and 2 weeks after the second intervention. Bacterial count also decreased following the use of TBO and laser separately, but these reductions were not significant (P > 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, antimicrobial efficacy of TBO + laser was higher than that of diode laser or TBO alone. Durability of treatment increased with double-dose therapy. This modality may be used to decrease the colony count of salivary mutans streptococci in children with SECC.


Severe early childhood caries Antibacterial photodynamic therapy Toluidine blue O Diode laser 



This study was supported by a grant from Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. The authors would like to thank Dr. Mohamamd Javad Kharazifard for the statistical analysis of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

The study design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shahid Beheshti University (acceptance number: 703).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Majid Bargrizan
    • 1
  • Reza Fekrazad
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Niloofar Goudarzi
    • 1
    • 4
  • Nastaran Goudarzi
    • 5
  1. 1.Dental Research Center, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, Dentistry FacultyShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Periodontology, Dental Faculty - Laser Research Center in Medical SciencesAJA University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.International Network for Photo Medicine and Photo Dynamic Therapy (INPMPDT)Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN)TehranIran
  4. 4.Pediatric DentistTehranIran
  5. 5.Oral Medicine, Dentistry FacultyAzad University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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