Effects of antibacterial photodynamic therapy on salivary mutans streptococci in 5- to 6-year-olds with severe early childhood caries
- 38 Downloads
Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (A-PDT) has been shown to kill oral bacteria in the planktonic culture, dental plaque, and biofilm. This study sought to assess the antimicrobial effect of A-PDT with toluidine blue O (TBO) and diode laser on salivary mutans streptococci in 5–6-year-olds with severe early childhood caries (SECC). This case-control study was conducted on 56 children with SECC divided into four groups, namely 0.1 mg/mL TBO, diode laser (633 nm, 20 mW, 6 J/cm2), combination of the two, and no intervention control group. A-PDT was performed on days 1 and 3. Salivary samples were collected before and after A-PDT on days 1 and 3, and 1 and 2 weeks after the second intervention (day 3). Samples were cultured on mitis salivarius agar, and after incubation, the colonies were counted. Data were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA, ANCOVA, and paired comparisons with least square difference and Tukey’s test. Bacterial count significantly decreased on days 1 and 3, and 1 and 2 weeks after the second intervention. Bacterial count also decreased following the use of TBO and laser separately, but these reductions were not significant (P > 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, antimicrobial efficacy of TBO + laser was higher than that of diode laser or TBO alone. Durability of treatment increased with double-dose therapy. This modality may be used to decrease the colony count of salivary mutans streptococci in children with SECC.
KeywordsSevere early childhood caries Antibacterial photodynamic therapy Toluidine blue O Diode laser
This study was supported by a grant from Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. The authors would like to thank Dr. Mohamamd Javad Kharazifard for the statistical analysis of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
The study design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shahid Beheshti University (acceptance number: 703).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 3.Schorth RJ, More P, Brothwell DJ (2005) Prevalence of early childhood caries in 4 Manitoba communities. J Can Dent 71:567Google Scholar
- 4.Colak H, Dülgergil CT, Dalli M, Hamidi MM (2013) Early childhood caries update: a review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments. J Nat Sci Biol Med 4:29–38. https://doi.10.4103/0976-9668.107257Google Scholar
- 5.Pinkham JR, Casamassimo PS, Fields HW, McTigue DJ, Nowak AJ (2005) Pediatric dentistry infancy through adolescence, 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Chap12, St. Louis, p 204Google Scholar
- 6.McDonald RE, Avery DR, Dean JA (2004) Dentistry for child and adolescent, 8th edn. Mosby, Chap10, St. Louis, pp 209–210Google Scholar
- 9.Azervedo TDPL, Bezerra ACB, Toledo OA (2005) Feeding habits and severe early childhood caries in Brazilian preschool children. Pediatr Dent 27:28–33Google Scholar
- 10.Clarke M, Lodker D, Berall G, Pencharz P, Kenny DJ, Judder P (2006) Malnourishment in a population of young children with severe early childhood caries. Pediatr Dent 28:154–159Google Scholar
- 11.American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (2003) Originating group and review council: policy on ECC: classification, consequences, and preventive strategies. Pediatr Dent 25:24–28Google Scholar
- 18.Zanin ICJ, Brugnera Junior A, Goncalves RB (2002) In vitro study of bactericidal effect of low level laser therapy in the presence of photosensitizer on cariogenic bacteria. Laser Dent 2:154–161Google Scholar
- 20.Cieplik F, Tabenski L, Buchalla W, Maisch T (2014) Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for inactivation of biofilms formed by oral key pathogens. Front Microbiol 5:405. https://doi.10.3389/fmicb.2014.00405Google Scholar
- 25.Jebaramya J, Ilanchelian M, Prabahar S (2009) Spectral studies of toluidine blue O in the presence of sodium dodecyle sulfate. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 4:789–797Google Scholar
- 27.Lima JP, Sampaio de Melo MA, Borges FM, Teixeira AH, Steiner-Oliveira C, Nobre Dos Santos M, Rodrigues LK, Zanin IC (2009) Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in an in situ model of dentine caries. Eur J Oral Sci 117:568–574. https://doi.10.1111/j.1600-0722.2009.00662.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Rolim JP, de-Melo MA, Guedes SF, Albuquerque-Filho FB, de Souza JR, Nogueira NA, Zanin IC, Rodrigues LK (2012) The antimicrobial activity of photodynamic therapy against Streptococcus mutans using different photosensitizers. J Photochem Photobiol B 106:40–46. https://doi.10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.10.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Souza LC, Brito PR, de Oliveira JC, Alves FR, Moreira EJ, Sampaio-Filho HR, Rôças IN, Siqueira JF Jr (2010) Photodynamic therapy with two different photosensitizers as a supplement to instrumentation/irrigation procedures in promoting intracanal reduction of Enterococcus faecalis. J Endod 36:292–296. https://doi.10.1016/j.joen.2009.09.041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.Souza RC, Junqueira JC, Rossoni RD, Pereira CA, Munin E, Jorge AO (2010) Comparison of the photodynamic fungicidal efficacy of methylene blue toluidine blue, malachite green and low-power laser irradiation alone against candida albicans. Lasers Med Sci 25:385–389. https://doi.10.1007/s10103-009-0706-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Nagata JY, Hioka N, Kimura E, Batistela VR, Terada RS, Graciano AX, Baesso ML, Hayacibara MF (2012) Antibacterial photodynamic therapy for dental caries: evaluation of the photosensitizers used and light source properties. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 9:122–131. https://doi.10.1016/j.pdpdt.2011.11.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar