Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 99–105 | Cite as

Effects of the percentage of air/water in spray on the efficiency of tooth ablation with erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation

  • Koichi ShinkaiEmail author
  • Mayo Takada
  • Satoki Kawashima
  • Masaya Suzuki
  • Shiro Suzuki
Original Article


We aimed at examining the effects of a percentage of air/water in spray on the cutting efficiency of Er,Cr:YSGG laser for enamel and dentin. The intensity and frequency of irradiation were 3.0 W and 20 Hz for the enamel surface and 2.0 W and 20 Hz for the dentin surface, respectively. Flattened surfaces of enamel and dentin were irradiated at nine points for approximately 1 s under various percentages of air/water in spray using Er,Cr:YSGG laser. A high-speed video microscope was used to record each laser irradiation on the tooth surface. A slow video image was used to count the number of water micro-explosions yielded on the tooth surface during laser irradiation. A surface roughness tester was used to measure the depth of the dimple prepared with laser irradiation on each specimen. Each individual depth of dimple was divided by the number of water micro-explosions (pulse). This allowed for the calculation of the cutting depth per pulse. Following laser irradiation, several representative specimens were observed using an SEM. Two-way ANOVA was used as the statistical analysis. This revealed that there was no significant effect of the percentage of air/water in spray on the cutting depth for enamel surface (p > 0.05). On the contrary, a significant effect was observed in air-ratio for dentin cutting (p < 0.05). Both enamel and dentin were characterized by the presence of rough surfaces, as shown by the SEM images of the dimples. The percentage of air/water in spray was not significantly effective in laser cutting for enamel. Air-percentage was significantly effective in laser cutting for dentin.


Erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser Tooth cutting Enamel Dentin High-speed camera 


Funding information

This study was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 23234567).

Compliance with ethical standards

The present study was reviewed and approved by The Human Research Committee of the Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata (approval number ECNG-H-9).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Operative DentistryThe Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at NiigataNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Tsuchiya Dental Clinic & WorksTokyoJapan

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