In the proposed work, we report on qualitative as well as quantitative biospeckle monitoring of functional blood flow on the human hand. Intensity-based algorithms namely generalized difference and our earlier proposed algorithm parameterized global-average Fujii have been approached for the first time to analyze various physiological changes due to effect of different treatments such as hot and cold water treatments on the palm which can be helpful in examining cardiovascular and related diseases. In addition, blood flow has been monitored for the first time on face scrub, beauty creams, and pain relief ointments applied over the back of the palm. It has been found that, on application of four beauty creams namely Fair & Lovely, Ponds White Beauty, Vicco Turmeric, and Lotus Herbals Safe Sun on the back of the palm, blood flow increases and becomes highest (mean activity, 154.87) for Fair & Lovely among the four beauty creams. In addition, pain relief ointments such as Volini, Fast Relief, Molid Gel, and Zandu Gel increase blood flow after their applications on the back of the palm and Volini gives maximum increase of average blood flow (31.59) and hence can be considered one of the best among the four ointments. It has been further concluded that the person having more hemoglobin (14) and higher blood pressure (120/90) may have more blood flow or mean activity (85.80). In addition, it has been also concluded that although hot and cold water treatments can be used for increment in blood flow, temperature should be retained according to need and sensitivity of the sample.
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Authors are sincerely thankful to all the volunteers especially to Dr. T. Santosh Kumar (Post-doctoral fellow), N. Zabeen, C. Koley, Atul Kumar, and B. Mohanty (Research Scholar, Appl. Physics, IIT (ISM) Dhanbad) for their constant help during the experiment.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
We certify that, although the research has been carried out on the human hand, no harmful treatment has been done. All the volunteers were healthy and all the treatments done on them were safe and non-destructive, and hence ethical approval is not needed for this study.
Informed consent was received from all individual volunteers in the study.
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