Central European Journal of Operations Research

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 851–862 | Cite as

A multi-attribute modelling approach to evaluate the efficient implementation of ICT in schools

  • Borut Čampelj
  • Igor Karnet
  • Andrej Brodnik
  • Eva Jereb
  • Uroš RajkovičEmail author
Original Paper


Comprehensive implementation of Information and Communication Technologies in schools is a key factor in empowering students in the European Union (EU) for their future roles. The framework, DigCompOrg, was proposed in 2015 under the direction of the European Commission to encourage self-assessment within EU schools and to update the level of digitalization. This article presents a computer-supported model based on this framework and a multi-attribute decision-making methodology named, DEX. The model was built by a group of experts and tested on selected schools in Slovenia. The main advantages of the model are: the use of qualitative value scales for attributes which do not have exact values; the use of a hierarchical structure for attributes; a transparent presentation of the interconnectedness of these attributes; and the use of simple if–then aggregation rules to allow the use of non-fixed weights. An application of our model to a selected school demonstrates the potential for knowledge modelling to facilitate upgrades of existing assessment tools and to provide a better understanding and analysis of assessment results.


Multi-attribute decision-making DEX methodology School digitalization Self-assessment tool 



The authors thank participating schools and their staff for active role in the study. The authors are thankful to Prof. Emer. Dr. Vladislav Rajkovič for his eye-opening ideas during the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Avidov-Ungar O (2017) Empowerment among teachers in leadership positions involving ICT implementation in schools. Leadersh Policy Sch. Google Scholar
  2. Becta (2008) What is the self-review framework? A guide for school leadersGoogle Scholar
  3. Blitz MH, Modeste M (2015) The differences across distributed leadership practices by school position according to the Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL). Leadersh Policy Sch 14:341–379. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bohanec M (2015) DEXi: a program for multi-attribute decision making, user’s manual, version 5.00Google Scholar
  5. Bohanec M (2017) DEXi: a program for qualitative multi-attribute decision modelling. IJS, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohanec M, Rajkovič V, Bratko I et al (2013) DEX methodology: three decades of qualitative multi-attribute modeling. Informatika 37:49–54Google Scholar
  7. Čampelj B, Karnet I, Brodnik A et al (2017) Decision support modelling for efficient implementation of ICT in schools. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Operational Research SOR’17. Slovenian Society Informatika, Section for Operational Research, Ljubljana, pp 161–166Google Scholar
  8. Cranmer S, Ulicsak M (2015) Development of the future classroom toolkit. In: Van Assche F, Anido L, Griffiths D et al (eds) Re-engineering the uptake of ICT in schools. Springer, Cham, pp 17–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. European Commission (2016) New Skills Agenda for EuropeGoogle Scholar
  10. García-Peñalvo FJ, Ramírez-Montoya MS (2017) Aprendizaje, Innovación y Competitividad: La Sociedad del Aprendizaje. Rev Educ Distancia RED.
  11. Gebhardt E, Ainley J (2014) Preparing for life in a digital age: the IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study International Report. Springer, s.lGoogle Scholar
  12. Hargreaves A, Morton B, Braun H, Gurn AM (2015) The changing dynamics of educational judgment and decision making in a data-driven world. In: Decision making in educational leadership: principles, policies and practices. Routledge, New York, pp 3–20Google Scholar
  13. Hashemkhani Zolfani S, Maknoon R, Zavadskas EK (2016) Multiple attribute decision making (MADM) based scenarios. Int J Strateg Prop Manag 20:101–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hauge TE (2016) On the life of ICT and school leadership in a large-scale reform movement. In: Elstad E (ed) Digital expectations and experiences in education. Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, pp 97–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hauge TE, Norenes SO (2015) Collaborative leadership development with ICT: experiences from three exemplary schools. Int J Leadersh Educ 18:340–364. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kampylis P, Punie Y, Devine J, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (2015) Promoting effective digital-age learning: a European framework for digitally-competent educational organisations. Publications Office, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  17. Laici C, Orlandini L (2016) “Avanguardie Educative”: paths of innovation for schools. Res Educ Media 8:53–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liljenberg M (2015) Distributing leadership to establish developing and learning school organisations in the Swedish context. Educ Manag Adm Leadersh 43:152–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Linko L, Kantola M, Friman M (2016) An Online Journal Promoting Digital Collaboration in Finnish Higher Education Institutions. In: EAPRIL Conference Proceedings 2016, 3rd edn. European Association for Practitioner Research on Improving Learning, Porto, Portugal, pp 228–238Google Scholar
  20. OECD (2015) Students, computers and learning. OECD Publishing, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Roth MA, Price JK (2016) The critical role of leadership for education transformation with successful technology implementation. In: Huang R, Kinshuk, Price JK (eds) ICT in education in global context. Springer, Berlin, pp 195–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Saaty TL (2012) Decision making for leaders: the analytic hierarchy process for decisions in a complex world, vol 5, 3rd edn. RWS Publ, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  23. Sairanen H, Vourinen M, Viteli J (2014) ICT skills of new teachers in Finnish School. In: EdMedia 2014—World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, Jun 23, 2014. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Tampere, Finland, pp 217–222Google Scholar
  24. Sergis S, Sampson DG (2016) Data-Driven Decision Making for School Leadership: A Critical Analysis of Supporting Systems. In: Huang R, Kinshuk, Price JK (eds) ICT in education in global context. Springer, Berlin, pp 145–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vanderlinde R, Aesaert K, van Braak J (2015) Measuring ICT use and contributing conditions in primary schools: ICT use and contributing conditions. Br J Educ Technol 46:1056–1063. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vermeulen M, Kreijns K, van Buuren H, Van Acker F (2017) The role of transformative leadership, ICT-infrastructure and learning climate in teachers’ use of digital learning materials during their classes: teachers’ use of digital learning materials. Br J Educ Technol 48:1427–1440. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wastiau P, Blamire R, Kearney C et al (2013) The use of ICT in education: a survey of schools in Europe. Eur J Educ 48:11–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. West RE, Borup J (2014) An analysis of a decade of research in 10 instructional design and technology journals: analysis of IDT research. Br J Educ Technol 45:545–556. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Organizational SciencesUniversity of MariborKranjSlovenia
  2. 2.Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information TechnologiesUniversity of PrimorskaKoperSlovenia
  3. 3.Faculty of Computer SciencesUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations