Green synthesis of bimetallic copper–silver nanoparticles and their application in catalytic and antibacterial activities
- 77 Downloads
The present research is focused on the synthesis of copper–silver bimetallic nanoparticles using the extracts from the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) leaves. The effect of operational parameters such as type of solvent, pH of the plant extract, salt concentration, and the solution temperature on the particle size and yield of the resultant nanoparticles is reported for the first time. Water–ethanol mixture of 1:1 (v/v) ratio was found to be the best solvent for the extraction of phenolic compounds from the leaves. The novelty of this work lies in the fact that the addition of capping reagent extracted by the green synthesis process from aqueous Sidr leaves reduced the average particle size of the nanoparticles to 26 nm. The characterizations of the copper–silver bimetallic nanoparticles were performed using particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Thus, the synthesis of bimetallic copper–silver nanoparticle using palm leaves extract would provide the associated process chemistry. Produced bimetallic nanoparticles were used to establish their catalytic activity to degrade the methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. Well diffusion studies using the as-produced nanoparticles on Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) exhibited the antibacterial ability of the copper–silver bimetallic nanoparticles. The potential catalytic activity for dye degradation and antibacterial assay using nanoparticles highlights the efficacy of the palm leaves and its components.
KeywordsGreen synthesis Phoenix dactylifera Capping reagent Nanoparticles Methylene blue Antibacterial activity
The authors are thankful to Abeer Alnahdi, Amna Alhosani, Ayesha Almheiri, Haleema Saleem, and R. Swathy for their help in experimental work.
- Ibrahim HMM (2015) Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using banana peel extract and their antimicrobial activity against representative microorganisms. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 8:296–302Google Scholar
- Mohamad NAN, Jai J, Arham NA, Hadi A (2013) A short review on the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles using plant extract. In: IEEE international conference on control system, computing and engineering, Penang, Malaysia, pp 334–339Google Scholar
- Nesalin JAJ, Gowthamarajan K, Somashekhara CN (2009) Formulation and evaluation of nanoparticles containing flutamide. Int J ChemTech Res 1:1331–1334Google Scholar
- Sivarajasekar N, Prakashmaran J, Naushad M, Farhan BZA, Poornima S, Sivapriya S, Gayathri V, Pradeepika T, Raghu V, Sivamani S, Dharaskar S, Dhakal N (2019) Recent updates on heavy metal remediation using date stones (Phoenix dactylifera L.)—date fruit processing industry waste. Sustain Agric Rev 34:193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tan KS, Cheong KY (2013) Advances of Ag, Cu, and Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles synthesized via chemical reduction route. J Nanopart Res 15:1–29Google Scholar
- Wang H, Yi C, Tian L, Wang W, Fang J, Zhao J, Shen W (2012) Ag-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by microemulsion method as catalyst for epoxidation of styrene. J Nanomater 2012:1–8Google Scholar
- Wang Y, Niu C, Zhu Y (2019) Copper-silver bimetallic nanowire arrays for electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide. Nanomaters 9:1–10Google Scholar