Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 21, Issue 10, pp 2073–2079 | Cite as

Barrier properties of cellulose nanofiber film as an external layer of particleboard

  • Aneta Gumowska
  • Grzegorz Kowaluk
  • Jalel Labidi
  • Eduardo RoblesEmail author
Brief Report


The use of formaldehyde-based adhesives in the wood-based composite industry represents a healthcare concern due to its toxic volatile compounds. For this reason, this work presents the use of a formaldehyde barrier layer based on cellulose nanofibers (CNF) obtained from Manila hemp (Musa textilis) fibers. The elaborated CNF films were firstly evaluated in their mechanical properties, gas transmittance, and surface free energy. Commercially available particleboards were produced with urea–formaldehyde resin and then covered in their external faces by CNF films, and the results were compared to those of an industrial-type laminate. These multilayered composites were evaluated in their morphology, surface free energy, and emission of free formaldehyde. Results showed that the addition of CNF layers reduced significantly the emission of formaldehyde (26% less). The bio-based nature of cellulose nanofibers provides an environmentally friendly barrier to prevent the emissions of volatile organic compounds from industrially available particleboards.

Graphic abstract


Wood composites Contact angles Environmental issues Formaldehyde emissions 



Cellulose nanofibers


Particleboard bonded with industrial laminate




Particleboard bonded with nanopaper


Oxygen transmission rate






Scanning electron microscopy




Water vapor transmission rate


Surface free energy


Water contact angle



The authors would like to acknowledge the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU and COST Action FP1205 through STSM FP1205-35995. The authors thank for technical and human support provided by SGIker of UPV/EHU for SEM characterizations.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biorefinery Processes Research Group, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering of GipuzkoaUniversity of the Basque Country UPV/EHUDonostiaSpain
  2. 2.Division of Composite Wood Products Engineering, Department of Technology and Entrepreneurship in Wood IndustryWarsaw University of Life SciencesWarsawPoland

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