Greener assembling of MoO3 nanoparticles supported on gum arabic: cytotoxic effects and catalytic efficacy towards reduction of p-nitrophenol

  • Saranya Kothaplamoottil Sivan
  • Akshay K.K. Padinjareveetil
  • Vinod V. T. Padil
  • Rajendra Pilankatta
  • Bini GeorgeEmail author
  • Chandra Senan
  • Miroslav ČerníkEmail author
  • Rajender S. VarmaEmail author
Original Paper


An economical and easy one-step method for the biosynthesis of highly stable molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanoparticles was developed using gum arabic as a bio-template; ensuing nanoparticles (NP) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The crystallinity and purity of MoO3 nanoparticles in the orthorhombic phase were confirmed by XRD analysis, and their rod-shaped identity (average sizes ranging from 7.5 to 42 nm) were observed by TEM. Cytotoxic effects of the NP were monitored using Hep G2 (human liver cancer) and HEK 293 (human embryonic kidney) cell lines via 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assays. The results of this study revealed that MoO3 nanoparticles are nontoxic towards Hep G2 cell lines and displayed negligible toxicity, even at very high concentrations (1000 ppm), although had moderate toxicity towards HEK 293 cells. Furthermore, their catalytic activity was evaluated for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol.

Graphical abstract

Synopsis: Green synthesis of MoO3 nanorods using gum arabic demonstrated as an eco-friendly catalyst for the conversion of p-nitrophenol with negligible toxicity towards Hep G2 cell lines.


Gum arabic Molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles p-nitrophenol XTT assay Toxicity Catalytic activity 



The author SKS gratefully acknowledge financial support from CSIR for the Senior Research Fellowship. The authors would also like to acknowledge the assistance provided by the Research Infrastructure NanoEnviCz (Project No. LM2015073) and the project Hybrid Materials for Hierarchical Structures (HyHi, Reg. No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16 019/0000843), supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and the European Union—European Structural and Investment Funds in the frames of Operational Programme Research, Development and Education.

Supplementary material

10098_2019_1726_MOESM1_ESM.docx (326 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 326 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saranya Kothaplamoottil Sivan
    • 1
  • Akshay K.K. Padinjareveetil
    • 2
  • Vinod V. T. Padil
    • 3
  • Rajendra Pilankatta
    • 4
  • Bini George
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chandra Senan
    • 5
  • Miroslav Černík
    • 3
    Email author
  • Rajender S. Varma
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, School of Physical SciencesCentral University of KeralaPeriyeIndia
  2. 2.Tata Institute of Fundamental Research HyderabadHyderabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of Nanomaterials in Natural Sciences, Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technology and InnovationTechnical University of LiberecLiberec 1Czech Republic
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biological SciencesCentral University of KeralaPeriyeIndia
  5. 5.Centre for Water Soluble Polymers, Applied Science, Faculty of Arts, Science and TechnologyWrexham Glyndwr UniversityWrexhamUK
  6. 6.Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of SciencePalacký University in OlomoucOlomoucCzech Republic

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