Investigations for the optimal combination of zinc oxide nanoparticle-diesel fuel with optimal compression ratio for improving performance and reducing the emission features of variable compression ratio diesel engine

  • Deepti KhatriEmail author
  • Rahul Goyal
  • Akarsh Darad
  • Akshat Jain
  • Samar Rawat
  • Alif Khan
  • Alan T. Johnson
Original Paper


The continual hike in environmental pollution from diesel engines has raised the concern of researchers to identify certain clean fuels. For this purpose, experimental investigations are carried out to inspect the consequences of ZnO nanoparticles addition for performance and emissions features of a 4-stroke, single-cylinder diesel engine. ZnO nanoparticles were mixed with pure diesel in varying proportions ranging from 5 to 25 mg. The better dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in diesel was attained by means of magnetic stirrer and ultrasonication process. The test fuels were experimented at varying engine loads of 2 kW, 4 kW, 6 kW, 8 kW, 10 kW and 12 kW at 1500 rpm engine speed. It was observed that among different test fuels, an enhancement in brake thermal efficiency was achieved by 15.58% and reduction of 11.11% in brake specific fuel consumption for 20ZnO60DF (20 mg ZNP + 20 mg CTAB surfactant + 600 ml diesel) at 12 kW engine load as compared with neat diesel. The toxic emissions of NOX, HC, CO, CO2 and particulate matter with the inclusion of 20ZnO60DF were significantly decreased by 57.46%, 78.78%, 58.93%, 41.85% and 42.51%, respectively, as correlated with pure diesel fuel at 12 kW condition with 18 compression ratio. The recommended optimal combination of ZnO nanoparticle-diesel with optimal compression ratio for better performance and reduced emissions level was found out to be 20ZnO60DF with compression ratio 18. So, it is concluded that ZnO nanoparticles addition to diesel could be accepted as a clean alternative fuel as it emits lesser emissions and acts as environmental-friendly fuel.

Graphic abstract


VCR diesel engine Nanoparticle Performance Emissions Zinc oxide 



American Society of Testing and Materials


Brake specific fuel consumption


Brake thermal efficiency


Diesel fuel




Nitrogen oxide


Particulate matter


Variable compression ratio


Zinc oxide nanoparticle


5 mg ZNP + 5 mg CTAB + 900 ml DF


10 mg ZNP + 10 mg CTAB + 800 ml DF


15 mg ZNP + 15 mg CTAB + 700 ml DF


20 mg ZNP + 20 mg CTAB + 600 ml DF


25 mg ZNP + 25 mg CTAB + 500 ml DF



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringManipal University JaipurJaipurIndia

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