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Eco-efficiency and techno-economic analysis for maleic anhydride manufacturing processes

  • Patrick V. MangiliEmail author
  • Pedro G. Junqueira
  • Lizandro S. Santos
  • Diego M. Prata
Original Paper
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

Maleic anhydride may be obtained from different technological routes, being the selective oxidation of benzene and oxidation of butane the only ones that are currently in operation and, hence, represent competitive alternatives. In this paper, the said technologies are compared with regard to their economics and ecological performances in order to assert which one corresponds to the cleanest technology. The economics of each process was estimated on the basis of their respective cash flows, while the environmental comparison was carried out through the Eco-efficiency Comparison Index method by estimating six different categories of eco-indicators and seven life cycle metrics. To the best of our knowledge, such technologies have not been compared in terms of a joint evaluation of life cycle and eco-efficiency metrics, let alone considering the design of their respective utility plants. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to analyze how the heuristic parameters for the utility plants considered in this work affect the estimation of the said indicators. The butane technology was shown to be more sustainable than the benzene process, since it was approximately 72% more profitable and 38% more eco-efficient than the latter.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Cash flow Eco-efficiency Maleic anhydride Process simulation Utility plants Waste reduction 

List of symbols

A

Heat transfer area

C1

Column 1

C2

Column 2

Cbenzene

Benzene composition

Cbutene

n-Butane composition

CMAN

Maleic anhydride composition

Coxygen

Oxygen composition

Di

Inner diameter

E1

Cooler 1

E2

Cooler 2

E3

Cooler 3

E4

Cooler 4

EC

CO2 emissions eco-indicator

Ecomb

Total thermal energy from combustion consumption

EE

Energy use eco-indicator

EF

Fuel consumption eco-indicator

Eind

Total electricity consumption

Emcomb

Total CO2 emissions due to thermal energy consumption

Emfug

Total CO2 emissions due burning off-gases in the flare

Emind

Total CO2 emissions due to electricity consumption

ERM

Raw material consumption eco-indicator

EW

Water consumption eco-indicator

EWW

Wastewater generation eco-indicator

f

Temperature difference factor

F1

Fired heater

H

Pump head

H1

Heater 1

H2

Heater 2

H3

Heater 3

K1

Compressor

L

Vessel length

MAN

Maleic anhydride mass flow rate

NG

Natural gas mass flow rate

RM

Raw material mass flow rate

P1

Pump 1

P2

Pump 2

P3

Pump 3

P4

Pump 4

P5

Pump 5

P6

Pump 6

pB

Partial pressure of butane

Pc

Compressor power

pM

Partial pressure of MAN

Q

Energy requirement

R1

Tubular reactor

\(\dot{V}\)

Volumetric flow rate

V1

Vessel 1

V2

Vessel 2

V3

Vessel 3

\(\dot{\nu}\)bfw

Boiler feed water volumetric flow rate

\(\dot{\nu}\)cw

Cooling water volumetric flow rate

\(\dot{\nu}\)hps

High-pressure steam volumetric flow rate

\(\dot{\nu}\)lps

Low-pressure steam volumetric flow rate

\(\dot{\nu}\)mps

Medium-pressure steam volumetric flow rate

xbenzene

Benzene molar fraction

xcumene

Cumene molar fraction

xDIPB

p-Diisopropyl benzene molar fraction

Greek symbols

α

Cooling water loss factor (process)

ß

Cooling water loss factor (cooling tower)

γ

Cooling water loss factor (blowdown)

δ

Cooling water make-up

ε

Steam loss factor (condensate losses)

ζ

Steam loss factor (boiler blowdown)

η

Steam loss factor (feed water treatment)

θ

Feed water make-up

Abbreviations

ATP

Aquatic toxicity potential

bfw

Boiler feed water

cw

Cooling water

ECI

Eco-efficiency Comparison Index

EPA

US Environmental Protection Agency

GWP

Global warming potential

hps

High-pressure steam

HTPI

Human toxicity potential by ingestion

HTPE

Human toxicity potential by inhalation

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

LCA

Lice cycle assessment

lps

Low-pressure steam

MAN

Maleic anhydride

MOC

Material of construction

mps

Medium-pressure steam

ng

Natural gas

NPV

Net present value

NRTL

Non-random two liquid

PCOP

Photochemical oxidation potential

PEI

Potential environmental impact

TTP

Terrestrial toxicity potential

UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

WAR

Waste reduction

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior —Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick V. Mangili
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pedro G. Junqueira
    • 1
  • Lizandro S. Santos
    • 1
  • Diego M. Prata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Petroleum EngineeringUniversidade Federal FluminenseNiteróiBrazil

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