Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 23–37 | Cite as

Conversion of a single-cylinder internal combustion engine to dual-mode homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

  • Anand Lalwani
  • Swapnil AwateEmail author
  • Arindrajit Chowdhury
  • Sheshadri Sreedhara
Original Paper


Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology has been a forerunner in improving efficiency and reducing emissions in conventional internal combustion engines. Despite significant research activity in the past few decades, engines operating on HCCI technology have not been commercially successful owing to practical engineering challenges. The current study attempts to convert a single-cylinder agricultural diesel engine to a gasoline HCCI mode. Dual mode of operation was employed to overcome the shortcomings of HCCI technology. The control algorithms were designed to switch between the gasoline HCCI mode and the diesel DI (direct injection) mode depending on load. A numerical simulation strategy was deduced to determine the initial experimental conditions. The HCCI mode could not be sustained above 40% load with the current control strategy which corresponds to 1.49 kW of brake power. In HCCI mode, a brake thermal efficiency of 23%, NOx emissions of 1.4 g/kW h, and CO2 emissions of 2200 g/kW h were achieved which was an improvement of approximately 15%, 80%, and 30%, respectively, at comparable loads in DI mode. Reduction in engine-out NOx is an attractive feature of HCCI engines. However, at lower loads CO and HC emissions of 1600 g/kW h and 46 g/kW h were achieved which were higher than conventional diesel DI mode and would be tackled by after-treatment systems which are economical as compared to after-treatment of other air pollutants. Overall, the technology was found to be clean and economically viable. Modifications to achieve dual-mode operation holds a potential to commercialize it, as it can be cross-deployed in any engine of similar class, which is an important feature considering the impact of these engines on air quality and economy of a country.


HCCI Gasoline Emissions Efficiency CHEMKIN PFI 



Active thermo-atmosphere combustion


Brake thermal efficiency (%)


Controlled auto-ignition


Compression ignition


Compression ignited homogeneous charge


Carbon monoxide (g/kW h)


Compression ratio


Data acquisition system


Direct injection


Engine control unit


Exhaust gas re-circulation


Gasoline direct injection


Homogeneous charge compression ignition


Internal combustion


Multi-point fuel injection


Non-dispersive infrared


Net mean effective pressure (bar)


Nitrogen oxides (g/kW h)


Proportional integral derivative


Port fuel injection


Particulate matter (g/kW h)


Rate of heat release (J/deg)


Regulated power supply


Spark ignition


Start of combustion


Top dead center


Unburned hydrocarbon (g/kW h)


Variable compression ratio



Authors would like to acknowledge the Department of Science and Technology (DST/TSG/AF/2011/48), India, for funding this project. Authors are thankful to Mr. Jeeva Baalu, Mr. Dharmvir Singh, Mr. Abhishek Sinha, and Mr. Yashraj Gurumukhi for their contributions to the experimental work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anand Lalwani
    • 1
  • Swapnil Awate
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arindrajit Chowdhury
    • 1
  • Sheshadri Sreedhara
    • 1
  1. 1.I. C. Engine and Combustion Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology, BombayPowai, MumbaiIndia

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