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Conversion of a single-cylinder internal combustion engine to dual-mode homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

  • Anand Lalwani
  • Swapnil Awate
  • Arindrajit Chowdhury
  • Sheshadri Sreedhara
Original Paper
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology has been a forerunner in improving efficiency and reducing emissions in conventional internal combustion engines. Despite significant research activity in the past few decades, engines operating on HCCI technology have not been commercially successful owing to practical engineering challenges. The current study attempts to convert a single-cylinder agricultural diesel engine to a gasoline HCCI mode. Dual mode of operation was employed to overcome the shortcomings of HCCI technology. The control algorithms were designed to switch between the gasoline HCCI mode and the diesel DI (direct injection) mode depending on load. A numerical simulation strategy was deduced to determine the initial experimental conditions. The HCCI mode could not be sustained above 40% load with the current control strategy which corresponds to 1.49 kW of brake power. In HCCI mode, a brake thermal efficiency of 23%, NOx emissions of 1.4 g/kW h, and CO2 emissions of 2200 g/kW h were achieved which was an improvement of approximately 15%, 80%, and 30%, respectively, at comparable loads in DI mode. Reduction in engine-out NOx is an attractive feature of HCCI engines. However, at lower loads CO and HC emissions of 1600 g/kW h and 46 g/kW h were achieved which were higher than conventional diesel DI mode and would be tackled by after-treatment systems which are economical as compared to after-treatment of other air pollutants. Overall, the technology was found to be clean and economically viable. Modifications to achieve dual-mode operation holds a potential to commercialize it, as it can be cross-deployed in any engine of similar class, which is an important feature considering the impact of these engines on air quality and economy of a country.

Keywords

HCCI Gasoline Emissions Efficiency CHEMKIN PFI 

Abbreviations

ATAC

Active thermo-atmosphere combustion

BTE

Brake thermal efficiency (%)

CAI

Controlled auto-ignition

CI

Compression ignition

CIHC

Compression ignited homogeneous charge

CO

Carbon monoxide (g/kW h)

CR

Compression ratio

DAS

Data acquisition system

DI

Direct injection

ECU

Engine control unit

EGR

Exhaust gas re-circulation

GDI

Gasoline direct injection

HCCI

Homogeneous charge compression ignition

IC

Internal combustion

MPFI

Multi-point fuel injection

NDIR

Non-dispersive infrared

NMEP

Net mean effective pressure (bar)

NOx

Nitrogen oxides (g/kW h)

PID

Proportional integral derivative

PFI

Port fuel injection

PM

Particulate matter (g/kW h)

ROHR

Rate of heat release (J/deg)

RPS

Regulated power supply

SI

Spark ignition

SOC

Start of combustion

TDC

Top dead center

UHC

Unburned hydrocarbon (g/kW h)

VCR

Variable compression ratio

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors would like to acknowledge the Department of Science and Technology (DST/TSG/AF/2011/48), India, for funding this project. Authors are thankful to Mr. Jeeva Baalu, Mr. Dharmvir Singh, Mr. Abhishek Sinha, and Mr. Yashraj Gurumukhi for their contributions to the experimental work.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anand Lalwani
    • 1
  • Swapnil Awate
    • 1
  • Arindrajit Chowdhury
    • 1
  • Sheshadri Sreedhara
    • 1
  1. 1.I. C. Engine and Combustion Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology, BombayPowai, MumbaiIndia

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