Use of 3D printing for biofuel production: efficient catalyst for sustainable biodiesel production from wastes
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This work deals with the sustainable biodiesel production from low-cost renewable feedstock (waste and non-edible oils) using a heterogeneous catalyst constituted by potassium loaded on an amorphous aluminum silicate naturally occurring as volcanic material (pumice). The main challenge to biodiesel production from low-quality oils (used oils and greases) is the high percentage of free fatty acids (FFAs) and water in the feedstock that causes undesirable side reactions. The catalytic materials studied were tested in the transesterification reaction when using low-quality oils containing a high proportion of free fatty acids (FFAs) and water. Results indicated that the amount of acid and basic sites on the catalytic surface increases upon increasing potassium loading in the catalyst, displaying better performance for biodiesel production. Indeed, the modification of the aluminum silicate substrate upon potassium incorporation results in a catalytic material containing both acidic and basic sites, which are responsible for both triglycerides transesterification and FFA esterification reactions. The studied catalyst not only showed good performance in the biodiesel production reaction but also good tolerance to FFA and water contained in the feedstock for biodiesel production. The catalytic material was microstructured by 3D printing in order to design a catalytic stirring system with high mechanical strength, efficient and reusable. The use of 3D printing in biofuel production is a novelty that brings good solutions for catalyst production.
KeywordsBiodiesel Heterogeneous catalyst Waste oil Non-edible oil Esterification/transesterification 3D printing
This work was supported by the Research Projects of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness: ENE2013-47826-C4-1-R and ENE2016-74889-C4-2-R.
Supplementary material 1 (MOV 12079 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (MOV 95,729 kb)
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