Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in Moscow from 2015 to 2018


The aim of this study was to assess which Mycoplasma pneumoniae genotypes were present in Moscow during the years 2015–2018 and whether the proportion between detected genotypes changed over time. We were also interested in the presence of macrolide resistance (MR)Mycoplasma pneumoniae. We performed multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), SNP typing, and mutation typing in the 23S rRNA gene from 117 M. pneumoniae clinical isolates. Our analysis suggests two major MLVA types: 4572 and 3562. In 2017–2018, MLVA type 4572 gradually became predominant. In general, the SNP type range is the same as described earlier for European countries. The analysis of MR mutations showed that 7% of the isolates had an A2063G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene with no isolates carrying an A2064G mutation. In 2017–2018, MLVA type 4572 (SNP type 1) begins to spread in Moscow, which was widespread globally, especially in Asian countries. SNP typing of our sample showed higher discriminatory power than MLVA typing.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. 1.

    Rachina SA, Kozlov RS, Shal EP, Ustyuzhanin IV, Krechikov OI, Ivanchik NV et al (2011) A spectrum of causative bacterial pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia in multidisciplinary hospitals of Smolensk. Russ Pulmonol 1:5–18.

  2. 2.

    Dégrange S, Cazanave C, Charron A, Renaudin H, Bébéar C, Bébéar CM (2009) Development of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for molecular typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 47:914–923.

  3. 3.

    Benitez AJ, Diaz MH, Wolff BJ, Pimentel G, Njenga MK, Estevez A et al (2012) Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates from 1962 to the present: a retrospective study. J Clin Microbiol 50:3620–3626.

  4. 4.

    Sun H, Xue G, Yan C, Li S, Cao L, Yuan Y et al (2013)Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Specimens and Proposal for Amendment of MLVA Nomenclature. PLoS One 8.

  5. 5.

    Touati A, Blouin Y, Sirand-Pugnet P, Renaudin H, Oishi T, Vergnaud G et al (2015) Molecular epidemiology of mycoplasma pneumoniae: genotyping using single nucleotide polymorphisms and snapshot technology. J Clin Microbiol 53:3182–3194.

  6. 6.

    Brown RJ, Holden MTG, Spiller OB, Chalker VJ (2015) Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for molecular typing of mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 53:3195–3203.

  7. 7.

    Wolff BJ, Thacker WL, Schwartz SB, Winchell JM (2008) Detection of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae by real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3542–3549.

  8. 8.

    Chalker VJ, Pereyre S, Dumke R, Winchell J, Khosla P, Sun H et al (2015) International Mycoplasma pneumoniae typing study: interpretation of M pneumoniae multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. New Microbes New Infect 7:37–40.

  9. 9.

    Yan C, Sun H, Xue G, Zhao H, Wang L, Feng Y et al (2014) A single-tube multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical specimens by use of multiplex PCR-capillary electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 52:4168–4171.

  10. 10.

    Carriço JA, Silva-Costa C, Melo-Cristino J, Pinto FR, de Lencastre H, Almeida JS et al (2006) Illustration of a common framework for relating multiple typing methods by application to macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes. J Clin Microbiol 44:2524–2532.

  11. 11.

    Pereyre S, Touati A, Petitjean-Lecherbonnier J, Charron A, Vabret A, Bébéar C (2013) The increased incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in France in 2011 was polyclonal, mainly involving M. pneumoniae type 1 strains. Clin Microbiol Infect 19:2–3.

  12. 12.

    Diaz MH, Benitez AJ, Winchell JM (2015) Investigations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the United States: trends in molecular typing and macrolide resistance from 2006 to 2013. J Clin Microbiol 53:124–130.

  13. 13.

    Ho PL, Law PY, Chan BWK, Wong CW, To KKW, Chiu SS et al (2015) Emergence of macrolide-resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae in Hong Kong is linked to increasing macrolide resistance in multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis type 4-5-7-2. J Clin Microbiol 53:3560–3564.

  14. 14.

    Whistler T, Sawatwong P, Diaz MH, Benitez AJ, Wolff BJ, Sapchookul P et al (2017) Molecular characterization of mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in two rural populations of Thailand from 2009 to 2012. J Clin Microbiol 55:2222–2223.

  15. 15.

    Kogoj R, Praprotnik M, Mrvič T, Korva M, Keše D (2018) Genetic diversity and macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates from two consecutive epidemics in Slovenia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 37:99–107.

  16. 16.

    Suzuki Y, Seto J, Shimotai Y, Itagaki T, Katsushima Y, Katsushima F et al (2017)Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates between 2004 and 2014 in Yamagata, Japan: Change in molecular characteristics during an 11-year period. Jpn J Infect Dis 70:642–646.

  17. 17.

    Zhao F, Liu G, Cao B, Wu J, Gu Y, He L et al (2013)Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of 201 mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates from Beijing, China, from 2008 to 2011. J Clin Microbiol 51:636–639.

  18. 18.

    Xue G, Li M, Wang N, Zhao J, Wang B, Ren Z et al (2018) Comparison of the molecular characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae from children across different regions of China. PLoS One 13:e0198557.

  19. 19.

    Kenri T, Okazaki N, Yamazaki T, Narita M, Izumikawa K, Matsuoka M et al (2008) Genotyping analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical strains in Japan between 1995 and 2005: type shift phenomenon of M. pneumoniae clinical strains. J. Med. Microbiol 57:469–475.

  20. 20.

    Nilsson AC, Björkman P, Welinder-Olsson C, Widell A, Persson K (2010) Clinical severity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae(MP) infection is associated with bacterial load in oropharyngeal secretions but not with MP genotype. BMC Infect Dis 10:39.

  21. 21.

    Qu J, Yu X, Liu Y, Yin Y, Gu L, Cao B et al (2013) Specific multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis genotypes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae are associated with diseases severity and macrolide susceptibility. PLoS One 8:8–12.

Download references


The work was partially supported by the Russian State–funded budget project of ICBFM SB RAS # АААА-А17-117020210027-9.

Author information

Correspondence to Elena N. Voronina.

Ethics declarations

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee (the ethical committee under Speransky Children’s Municipal Clinical Hospital N9 January 21, 2014) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Voronina, E.N., Gordukova, M.A., Turina, I.E. et al. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in Moscow from 2015 to 2018. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 39, 257–263 (2020).

Download citation


  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • MLVA
  • SNP
  • Macrolide resistance