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Emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus EMRSA-15 clone as the predominant cause of diabetic foot ulcer infections in Portugal

  • Vanessa Silva
  • Francisco Almeida
  • José António Carvalho
  • Ana Paula Castro
  • Eugénia Ferreira
  • Vera Manageiro
  • María Teresa Tejedor-Junco
  • Manuela Caniça
  • Gilberto Igrejas
  • Patrícia PoetaEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are often found in infected diabetic foot ulcers, in which the prevalence may reach 40%. These complications are one of the main causes of morbidity in diabetic patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of MRSA strains in infected diabetic foot ulcers and to characterize their genetic lineages. Samples collected from 42 type 2 diabetic patients, presenting infected foot ulcers, were seeded onto ORSAB plates with 2 mg/L of oxacillin for MRSA isolation. Susceptibility to 14 antimicrobial agents was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The presence of resistance genes, virulence factors, and the immune evasion cluster system was studied by PCR. All isolates were characterized by MLST, accessory gene regulator (agr), spa, and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing. Twenty-five MRSA strains were isolated. All isolates showed resistance to penicillin and cefoxitin. Sixteen isolates showed phenotypic resistance to erythromycin being 7 co-resistant to clindamycin. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was found in 2 isolates harboring the dfrA and dfrG genes. The IEC genes were detected in 80% of isolates, 16 of which were ascribed to IEC-type B. Isolates were assigned to 12 different spa types. The MLST analysis grouped the isolates into 7 sequence types being the majority (68%) ascribed to SCCmec type IV. In this study, there was a high prevalence of the EMRSA-15 clone presenting multiple resistances in diabetic foot ulcers making these infections complicated to treat leading to a higher morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients.

Keywords

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection Diabetic foot ulcers CA-MRSA EMRSA-15 

Notes

Funding information

This work was funded by the R&D Project CAREBIO2 - Comparative assessment of antimicrobial resistance in environmental biofilms through proteomics - towards innovative theranostic biomarkers, with reference NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-030101 and PTDC/SAU-INF/30101/2017, financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the Northern Regional Operational Program (NORTE 2020) and the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). This work was supported by the Associate Laboratory for Green Chemistry-LAQV which is financed by national funds from FCT/MCTES (UID/QUI/50006/2019). Vanessa Silva is supported by national funds through FCT/MCTES and by the European Social Fund through POCH/FSE under the PhD grant SFRH/BD/137947/2018.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanessa Silva
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Francisco Almeida
    • 2
  • José António Carvalho
    • 5
  • Ana Paula Castro
    • 5
  • Eugénia Ferreira
    • 6
    • 7
  • Vera Manageiro
    • 6
    • 7
  • María Teresa Tejedor-Junco
    • 8
  • Manuela Caniça
    • 6
    • 7
  • Gilberto Igrejas
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Patrícia Poeta
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Microbiology and Antibiotic Resistance Team (MicroART), Department of Veterinary SciencesUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD)Vila RealPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Genetics and BiotechnologyUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  3. 3.Functional Genomics and Proteomics UnitUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD)Vila RealPortugal
  4. 4.Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry (LAQV-REQUIMTE)University NOVA of LisboaLisbonPortugal
  5. 5.Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro E.P.EVila RealPortugal
  6. 6.National Reference Laboratory of Antibiotic Resistances and Healthcare Associated Infections (NRL-AMR/HAI), Department of Infectious DiseasesNational Institute of Health Dr Ricardo JorgeLisbonPortugal
  7. 7.Centre for the Studies of Animal Science, Institute of Agrarian and Agri-Food Sciences and TechnologiesOporto UniversityOportoPortugal
  8. 8.Research Institute of Biomedical and Health SciencesUniversity of Las Palmas de Gran CanariaLas Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain

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