Mycoplasma genitalium, a stealth female reproductive tract

  • Newton Sergio De CarvalhoEmail author
  • Gabriele Palú
  • Steven S. Witkin


Mycoplasma genitalium was first isolated from the urethral swabs of two symptomatic men with urethritis in 1980. It is a sexually transmitted bacterium associated with a number of urogenital conditions in women like cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, M. genitalium may also act like a stealth pathogen at female reproductive tract, giving no symptoms. Its prevalence varies between different groups, with the average being 0.5–10% in the general population and 20–40% in women with sexually transmitted infections. The recommended treatment of this infection is azithromycin as a single 1-g dose. However, in recent years, macrolide resistance has increased which is significantly lowering the cure rate, being less than 50% in some studies. New treatment regimens need to be investigated due to increasing drug resistance. The discussion and suggestion of an algorithm for management of this infection is the highlight of this paper.


Mycoplasma genitalium Sexually transmitted infection Resistance Prevalence Treatment 


Author contribution

Newton Sergio de Carvalho: Manuscript writing, data collection.

Gabriele Palú: Manuscript writing.

Steven S. Witkin: Data management, manuscript editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Federal University of Paraná (DTG/UFPR)Gynecology and Obstetrics Infections Sector from Clinical Hospital - UFPRCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Division of Immunology and Infectious DiseasesDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Cornell MedicineNew YorkUSA

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