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Pathogenic mechanisms and current epidemiological status of HEV infection in asymptomatic blood donors and patients with chronic diseases

  • L. Albano
  • Maria VascoEmail author
  • G. Benincasa
  • L. Sommese
  • R. Alfano
  • C. Napoli
Review
  • 51 Downloads

Abstract

In recent years, the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus immunoglobulins (HEV) has increased in European countries with significant variability among the different geographical areas. HEV infection is spread in a wide range of animal species of which domestic pigs and wild boar represent the main reservoirs of genotype 3 and 4 (the genotypes present also in Europe). European citizens are incidental hosts, mainly infected by direct contact or consumption of foods derived from undercooked or insufficient hygiene handling infected pork products or wild boar meat. Epidemiologically, the HEV incidence is low in humans but serological data show a high proportion of subclinical infection caused by genotypes 3 or 4. In the general population, asymptomatic infection represents a high potential risk in particular subjects such as blood component recipients or occupationally exposed workers. This review offers a landscape of the current epidemiological status of HEV infection (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 7) both in European asymptomatic subjects, patients with chronic diseases, and domestic pig impact on humans. We also underline advantages/disadvantages of high sensitivity and specificity tests using for detecting viral RNA or anti-HEV antibodies.

Keywords

HEV Epidemiology European populations Patients qRT-PCR ELISA 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Experimental MedicineUniversity of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.U.O.C. Division of Clinical Immunology, Immunohematology, Transfusion Medicine and Transplant ImmunologyUniversity of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”NaplesItaly
  3. 3.University Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine and Specialistic Units (DAI)University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”NaplesItaly

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