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Persistent Candidemia in adults: underlying causes and clinical significance in the antifungal stewardship era

  • Caroline AgnelliEmail author
  • Maricela Valerio
  • Emilio Bouza
  • Antonio Vena
  • Jesús Guinea
  • María del Carmen Martínez-Jiménez
  • Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano
  • Pilar Escribano
  • Patricia Muñoz
  • on behalf of the COMIC Study Group (Collaborative Group on Mycosis)
Original Article
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Abstract

To investigate the causes and the clinical significance of persistent candidemia (PC) in adults diagnosed in a tertiary hospital with an active antifungal stewardship program. Retrospective cohort including all adults with candidemia from 2010 to 2018. PC was defined as any positive follow-up blood culture (BC) obtained ≥ 5 days from the first BCs yielding the same Candida species. PC was detected in 35/255 (13.7%) patients. There were no differences regarding antifungal adequacy in PC vs. non-PC (94.3% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.084) and primary source control (63.3% vs. 76.4%, p = 0.172) at the time of the follow-up BCs. The average time until source control (2 [0–37] vs. 2 days [0–44], p = 0.311) or adequate antifungal treatment (2 [0–26] vs. 2 days [− 2–10], p = 0.748) was similar. Patients with PC had more non-ocular complications (31.4% vs. 10.5%, p = 0.002). No impact on 30-day mortality was observed (31.4% vs. 22.3%, p = 0.238). The only independent factor associated with PC was to have a previously undetected site of infection [OR 4.28, 95%CI (1.77–10.34), p = 0.001]. Persistent candidemia was not associated with inadequate or delayed therapeutic management, nor higher 30-day mortality rates. Timely screening and control of unexpected infection sources are encouraged to shorten hospitalization and improve patient care.

Keywords

Persistent candidemia Antifungal stewardship Mortality Candidemia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all participants of the COMIC Study Group (Collaborative Group on Mycoses): F. Anaya, R. Bañares, E. Bouza, A. Bustinza, E. Chamorro, P. Escribano, A.Fernández-Cruz, J. Fernández-Quero, I. Frias, J. Gayoso, P. Gijón, J. Guinea, J. Hortal, M. C. Martínez, I. Márquez, M. C. Menárguez, P. Muñoz, M. Navarro, B. Padilla, J. Palomo, T. Peláez, J. Peral, B. Pinilla, D. Rincón, C. G. Rodríguez, M. Rodríguez, M Salcedo, M.Sánchez-Somolinos, M. Sanjurjo, M. Valerio, E. Verde, and E. Zamora.

Funding

This study was supported by Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria (FIS) - PM (PI13/01148) and LJMZ (PI14/00740); CA was supported by CAPES Foundation, Brazil/PDSE (88881.187981/2018-01); PE (CPI15/00115) and JG (CPII15/00006) are recipients of a Miguel Servet grant, and AV (CM15/00181) was supported by a Rio Hortega grant from Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), also co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) “A way of making Europe.” Additional funding was received through the Plan Nacional de I+D+I 2013-2016, and PROgrama MULtidisciplinar para la Gestión de Antifúngicos y la Reducción de Candidiasis Invasora (PROMULGA) II Project.

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee (Comité Ético de Investigación Clínica del Hospital Gregorio Marañón [CEIC-A1], study code MICRO.HGUGM.2015–071). The need for an informed consent was waived owing to the non-interventional, retrospective design of the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline Agnelli
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Maricela Valerio
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emilio Bouza
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Antonio Vena
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Jesús Guinea
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • María del Carmen Martínez-Jiménez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    • 6
  • Pilar Escribano
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Patricia Muñoz
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • on behalf of the COMIC Study Group (Collaborative Group on Mycosis)
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious DiseasesHospital General Universitario Gregorio MarañónMadridSpain
  2. 2.Gregorio Marañón Sanitary Research InstituteMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de MedicinaUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES CB06/06/0058)MadridSpain
  5. 5.Department of Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  6. 6.Computational Biology Group, Precision Nutrition and Cancer Research ProgramIMDEA Food InstituteMadridSpain

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