Radiologic types of Mycobacterium xenopi pulmonary disease: different patients with similar short-term outcomes

  • Takashi HiramaEmail author
  • Sarah K. Brode
  • Theodore K. Marras
Original Article


Mycobacterium xenopi pulmonary disease (Mxe-PD) is common among nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Europe and Canada. Associations between radiological pattern and clinical features and outcomes are inadequately studied in Mxe-PD. We sought to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes according to the dominant radiological pattern among patients with Mxe-PD. We retrospectively studied patients with Mxe-PD seen in our clinic, categorizing their predominant CT pattern as nodular bronchiectasis, fibrocavitary, or unclassifiable, and compared clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes between radiologic groups. Of 94 patients with Mxe-PD, CT patterns comprised nodular bronchiectasis (40/94, 42.6%), fibrocavitary (37/94, 39.4%), and unclassifiable (17/94, 18.1%). Compared with fibrocavitation, patients with nodular bronchiectasis were female dominant, less often had COPD, less often had AFB smear-positive sputum, and more frequently had co-isolation of Pseudomonas. Patients with nodular bronchiectasis were less often treated (65% versus 91.9%) and when treated, they received fewer anti-mycobacterial drugs (on average 3 versus 4). Outcomes did not differ significantly by radiological pattern. Nodular bronchiectasis was common among Mxe-PD patients in our clinic. Compared with fibrocavitary disease, patients with nodular bronchiectasis had features suggestive of milder disease and were less often treated. Among treated patients, outcomes did not differ by radiologic pattern.


Mycobacterium xenopi Nontuberculous mycobacteria Chest CT Nodular bronchiectasis 



This work is supported in part by Kurozumi Medical Foundation and Tokyo-Hokenkai Byotai-Seiri Laboratory.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study protocol was reviewed by the University Health Network-Research Ethics Board (Research Ethics Board number 18-5104).

Informed consent

In light of the retrospective design, the requirement of informed consent was waived.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Respirology, Department of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Respiratory MedicineWest Park Healthcare CentreTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Division of Respirology, Department of MedicineToronto Western HospitalTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Development, Aging and CancerTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

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