Human polyomavirus KI, WU, BK, and JC in healthy volunteers
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Despite the growing importance of infections caused by the human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), information about their transmission, pathogenesis, and epidemiology is scarce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the excretion and distribution of HPyV (HPyV1-HPyV4 [former BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, and WUPyV, respectively]) among asymptomatic individuals from different geographic regions in Brazil, in order to verify the existence of distinct epidemiologic patterns among the Brazilian population. Saliva samples from 889 healthy volunteers living in nine locations in Brazil were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect HPyV1–4. Among 889 participants, 346 (39%) had evidence of infection with one or more HPyV species: 127 (14.3%) had HPyV1 only; 70 (7.9%) had HPyV3 only; 60 (6.7%) had HPyV4 only, and 25 (2.8%) had HPyV2 only. Coinfections were detected in 64 participants (7.3%). Although HPyV excretion was detected in samples from all locations, the frequency and distribution of viral species varied significantly. The epidemiologic findings presented demonstrate that the four HPyV species studied are circulating in five geographic regions of Brazil. Salivary excretion of these viruses appears common among healthy Brazilians. The distribution of viral species varies considerably between regions as well as within regions.
KeywordsPolyomaviruses Saliva BKPyV JCPyV KIPyV WUPyV
We thank Soluza dos Santos Gonçalves for technical assistance. Soluza dos Santos Gonçalves is the recipient of a fellowship from FAPERJ E-26/202.625/2016. We also thank Dr. Ferando Portela Câmara for the statistical analysis and Maulori Curié Cabral, Tânia Fraga Barros, Raquel Cirlene da Silva, Camila Correia Banks da Rocha, Luz Alba Maria Garcete Fornells Arentz, and Tatiana Ferreira Robaina for assistance with sample collection.
This study was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, grant number, 303864/2014-1), the Fundação Carlos Chagas de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (FAPERJ, grant numbers, E-26/201.374/2014 and E-26/202.625/2016), and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001. The funders were not involved in study design, data collection, data interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
The protocol for this study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (protocol number 891.574) of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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