Prognostic roles of time to positivity of blood culture in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

  • Qinyuan Li
  • Yuanyuan Li
  • Qian Yi
  • Fengtao Suo
  • Yuan Tang
  • Siying Luo
  • Xiaoyin Tian
  • Guangli Zhang
  • Dapeng Chen
  • Zhengxiu LuoEmail author
Original Article


We aimed to investigate the relationship between time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures and clinical outcomes in children with S. pneumoniae bacteremia. Children with S. pneumoniae bacteremia hospitalized in Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from May 2011 to December 2017 were enrolled retrospectively. Overall, 136 children with S. pneumoniae bacteremia were enrolled. The standard cutoff TTP was 12 h. We stated that in-hospital mortality is significantly higher in the early TTP (≤ 12 h) group than that in the late TTP (> 12 h) group (41.70% vs 8.00%, P < 0.001). Septic shock occurred in 58.30% of patients with early TTP and in 21.00% of patients with late TTP (P < 0.001). Independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality and septic shock in children with S. pneumoniae bacteremia included early TTP, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and PRISM III score ≥ 10. Overall, TTP ≤ 12 h appeared to associate with the worse outcomes for children with S. pneumoniae bacteremia.


Time to positivity Blood culture Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacteremia Outcomes Children 


Funding information

This work was supported by the fund of the National Key Clinical Specialty (grant no. 2011-873).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in ChongqingChongqingChina
  2. 2.Department of Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and DisordersChongqingChina
  3. 3.Department of Respiratory MedicineChildren’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical UniversityChongqingChina
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Laboratory centerChildren’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical UniversityChongqingChina

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