Results of an educational campaign on stroke awareness in the 2032 Rotary District in Northern-Western Italy

  • C. GandolfoEmail author
  • F. Alberti
  • M. Del Sette
  • A. Gagliano
  • N. Reale
Original Article



People often ignore the usefulness of stroke prevention, the typical onset symptoms, and the efficacy of the new therapies. In order to attempt to correct this situation, we performed an educational campaign addressed to Rotary club associates and their relatives or friends in the Italian Rotary District 2032.


The campaign consisted in three phases: (1) Compilation of a simple questionnaire on stroke, followed by a scientific relation on the disease, distribution of didactic materials, and organization of screening sessions on individual stroke risk evaluation; (2) Recompilation by participants of the same previous questionnaire; (3) Statistical evaluation of the improvement of stroke knowledge.


The initial percentage of wrong answers (number of subjects 657) was 22.41% ((A) stroke general knowledge 15.45%; (B) stroke risk factors 25.65%; (C) Stroke early symptoms 22.65%). At the end of the campaign, the total percentage of wrong answers (number of subjects 296) attained the 13.18% ((A) stroke general knowledge 8.22%; (B) stroke risk factors 14.98%; (C) stroke early symptoms 13.85%). All these differences were strongly significant at the statistical analysis.

Discussion and conclusion

We demonstrated that our educational campaign obtained an important improvement of stroke awareness in our sample. We hope that the enhanced awareness might induce a more frequent diffusion of primary prevention strategies, an increased capacity of recognizing onset stroke symptoms with shortening of patients’ presentation in the Emergency Room of the hospitals when they can undergo thrombolysis/thrombectomy.


Awareness Stroke Information campaign Educational project Rotary District 2032 


Funding information

The project received financial support from Rotary International.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The Governor and the Project Commission of the Rotary District 2032 approved the educational campaign. The study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. Any details that might disclose the identity of the subjects under study was omitted before the analysis. All recruited persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.

Supplementary material

10072_2019_4126_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 25 kb)


  1. 1.
    The European Registers of Stroke (EROS) Investigators (2009) Incidence of stroke in Europe at the beginning of the 21st century. Stroke 40:1557–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heuschmann PU, Di Carlo A, Bejot Y, Rastenyte D, Ryglewicz D, Sarti C et al (2009) Incidence of stroke in Europe at the beginning of the 21st century. Stroke 40:1557–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Béjot Y, Bailly H, Durier J, Giroud M (2016) Epidemiology of stroke in Europe and trends for the 21st century. Presse Med 45:391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kissela BM, Khoury JC, Alwell K, Moomaw CJ, Woo D, Adeoye O, Flaherty ML, Khatri P, Ferioli S, De Los Rios La Rosa F, Broderick JP, Kleindorfer DO (2012) Temporal trends in stroke incidence in a large, biracial population. Neurology 79:1781–1787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tibæk M, Dehlendorff C, Jørgensen HS, Forchhammer HB, Johnsen SP (2016) Kammersgaard LP (2016) Increasing incidence of hospitalization for stroke and transient ischemic attack in young adults: a registry-based study. J Am Heart Assoc 5:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    The GBD (2016) Lifetime Risk of Stroke Collaborators (2018) Global, regional, and country-specific lifetime risks of stroke, 1990 and 2016. N Engl J Med 379:2429–2437Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Caminiti C, Schulz P, Marcomini B, Iezzi E, Riva S, Scoditti U, Zini A, Malferrari G, Zedde ML, Guidetti D, Montanari E, Baratti M, Denti L, and on behalf of the Educazione e Ritardo di Ospedalizzazione (E.R.O.I) study group (2017) Development of an education campaign to reduce delays in pre-hospital response to stroke. BMC Emerg Med 17:20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kraywinkel K, Heidrich J, Heuschmann PU, Wagner M, Berger K (2007) Stroke risk perception among participants of a stroke awareness campaign. BMC Public Health 7:39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rasura M, Baldereschi M, Di Carlo A, Di Lisia F, Patella R, Piccardi B, Polizzi B, Inzitari D, for the Promotion and Implementation of Stroke Care in Italy Project Working Group (2014) Effectiveness of public stroke educational interventions: a review. Eur J Neurol 21:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Giorli E, Schirinzi E, Baldi R, Mannironi A, Raggio RN, Gandolfo C, Del Sette M (2019) Planning a campaign to fight stroke: an educational pilot project in La Spezia. Italy. Neurol Sci. 40:2133–2140. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baldereschi M, Di Carlo A, Vaccaro C, Polizzi B, Inzitari D, for the Promotion Implementation of Stroke Care in Italy Project Working Group (2015) Stroke knowledge in Italy. Neurol Sci 36:415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marx JJ, Klawitter B, Faldum A, Eicke BM, Haertle B, Dieterich M, Nedelmann M (2010) Gender-specific differences in stroke knowledge, stroke risk perception and the effects of an educational multimedia campaign. J Neurol 257:367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Worthmann H, Schwartz A, Heidenreich F, Sindern E, Lorenz R, Adams H-A, Flemming A, Luettje K, Walter U, Haertle B, Dengler R (2013) Educational campaign on stroke in an urban population in Northern Germany: influence on public stroke awareness and knowledge. Int J Stroke 8:286–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wolters FJ, Paul MLM, Li L, Rothwell PM, on behalf of the Oxford Vascular Study (2015) Sustained impact of UK FAST-test public education on response to stroke: a population-based time-series study. Int J Stroke 10:1108–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Denti L, Caminiti C, Scoditti U, Zini A, Malferrari G, Zedde ML, Guidetti D, Baratti M, Vaghi L, Montanari E, Marcomini B, Riva S, Iezzi E, Castellini P, Olivato S, Barbi F, Perticaroli E, Monaco D, Iafelice I, Bigliardi G, Vandelli L, Guareschi A, Artoni A, Zanferrari C, Schulz PJ (2017) Impact on prehospital delay of a stroke preparedness campaign: a SW-RCT (Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial). Stroke 48:3316–3322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kilkenny MF, Johnson RR, Cadilhac DA, on behalf of the National Stroke Foundation (2010) Feasibility of a pilot programme to increase awareness of blood pressure as an important risk factor for stroke in Australia. Int J Stroke 5:344–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Fondazione Società Italiana di Neurologia 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinica Neurologia, Policlinico San MartinoUniversità di GenovaGenovaItaly
  2. 2.Azienda Sanitaria Locale 1GenovaItaly
  3. 3.Ente Ospedaliero Ospedali GallieraGenovaItaly
  4. 4.Azienda Ospedaliera Santa Croce e CarleCuneoItaly

Personalised recommendations