The effect of remote ischemic conditioning on blood coagulation function and cerebral blood flow in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
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To explore the effect of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) on blood coagulation function and cerebral blood flow in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Patients and methods
According to inclusion and exclusion standards, from October 2017 to June 2018, 30 consecutive patients of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neurosurgery at Xuanwu Hospital, were given remote ischemic conditioning 5 times intervention to each patient within 7 days, and blood coagulation function testing, including prothrombin activity (PTA), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fib), D-dimer, and thromboelastogram (TEG, including R, K, Angle, MA, EPL, LY30, A, CI, G, and A30) were performed for each patient before and after the RIC intervention, as well as venous ultrasound monitoring before and after the RIC intervention for detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Transcranial Doppler evaluation (TCD), including cerebral blood flow of bilateral ACA, MCA, PCA and intracranial segments of VA, as well as BA and the ratios of MCA cerebral blood flow/terminal segment of ipsilateral ICA cerebral blood flow, was performed before and after RIC intervention; and fresh infarction was evaluated by head CT or MRI recheck after RIC intervention. Thirty cases without RIC intervention of matched age, gender, and Hunt Hess grade with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were selected to compare coagulation function and cerebral blood flow using TCD with RIC group.
(1) Comparing the data before and after the RIC intervention, there was no significant difference for APTT, Fib, and D-dimer (P > 0.05), while PTA decreased and PT increased slightly after intervention as well as INR (P < 0.05) but all still in normal reference values. (2) Comparing the data before and after the RIC intervention, within TEG parameters, only the R value increased with significant difference (P < 0.05) but still in normal reference value, while K, Angle, MA, EPL, LY30, A, CI, G, and A30 had no significant difference (P > 0.05). (3) Comparing the data before and after the RIC intervention, DVT was not detected on the pressurized limbs of patients. (4) Comparing the data before and after the RIC intervention, the cerebral blood flow of bilateral MCA, L-ACA, L-VA, and BA increased (P < 0.05), while the elevation ranges were all in 25%, and the other parameters showed no significant difference. (5) Head CT or MRI showed no fresh cerebral infarction after the RIC intervention. (6) Compared with the group without RIC intervention, the coagulation function and the cerebral blood flow evaluated by TCD of the RIC group showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05) except APTT and D-dimer decreased after RIC but still in normal reference values.
RIC showed no obvious effect on blood coagulation function and cerebral blood flow in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage both after the intervention and compared with the non-intervention group. DVT was not detected on the pressurized limbs of patients and no fresh cerebral infarction was detected. This preliminary study confirmed the safety of RIC on blood coagulation function and cerebral blood flow in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the application of RIC on patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage needs further study to confirm and validate the safety and effectiveness.
KeywordsIntracranial aneurysm Subarachnoid hemorrhage Remote ischemic conditioning Blood coagulation function Cerebral blood flow
Each author has made an important scientific contribution to the study and is thoroughly familiar with the primary data. All authors listed have read the complete manuscript and have approved submission of the paper.
This work was supported by a grant from Beijing Municipal 215 High-level Health Professional Personnel Academic Talent Project (2015-3-062, Dr. XU Y), a grant from Scientific Research Common Program of Beijing Municipal Commission of Education (KM201710025015, Dr. XU Y), a grant from Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Project of China (Z151100004015095, Dr. XU Y), and a grant from the Intramural Research Program of Basic and Clinical Medical Sciences, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University (XWYY201709, Dr. QI M). The sponsors had no role in the design or conduct of this research.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, prospectively and consecutively including patients of subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to Intensive Care Unit of Department of Neurosurgery in Xuanwu Hospital from October 2017 to June 2018.
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.